The reign of Alexander and his successors: Antiochus rifles and profanes the temple of God: and persecutes unto death all that will not forsake the law of God, and the religion of their fathers.
1 Now it came to pass, after that Alexander the son of Philip the Macedonian, who first reigned in Greece, coming out of the land of Cethim, had overthrown Darius king of the Persians and Medes: 2 He fought many battles, and took the strong holds of all, and slew the kings of the earth: 3 And he went through even to the ends of the earth, and took the spoils of many nations: and the earth was quiet before him. 4 And he gathered a power, and a very strong army: and his heart was exalted and lifted up. 5 And he subdued countries of nations, and princes: and they became tributaries to him.
6 And after these things, he fell down upon his bed, and knew that he should die. 7 And he called his servants the nobles that were brought up with him from his youth: and he divided his kingdom among them, while he was yet alive. 8 And Alexander reigned twelve years, and he died. 9 And his servants made themselves kings every one in his place: 10 And they all put crowns upon themselves after his death, and their sons after them many years, and evils were multiplied in the earth.
7 "Divided his kingdom"... This is otherwise related by Q. Curtius; though he acknowledges that divers were of that opinion, and that it had been delivered by some authors, lib. 10. But here we find from the sacred text, that he was in error.
11 And there came out of them a wicked root, Antiochus the Illustrious, the son of king Antiochus, who had been a hostage at Rome: and he reigned in the hundred and thirty-seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks. 12 In those days there went out of Israel wicked men, and they persuaded many, saying: Let us go, and make a covenant with the heathens that are round about us: for since we departed from them, many evils have befallen us. 13 And the word seemed good in their eyes. 14 And some of the people determined to do this, and went to the king: and he gave them license to do after the ordinances of the heathens. 15 And they built a place of exercise in Jerusalem, according to the laws of the nations:
11 "Antiochus the Illustrious"... Epiphanes, the younger son of Antiochus the Great, who usurped the kingdom, to the prejudice of his nephew Demetrius, son of his elder brother Seleucus Philopater.-- Ibid.
11 "Of the kingdom of the Greeks"... Counting, not from the beginning of the reign of Alexander, but from the first year of Seleucus Nicator.
16 And they made themselves prepuces, and departed from the holy covenant, and joined themselves to the heathens, and were sold to do evil. 17 And the kingdom was established before Antiochus, and he had a mind to reign over the land of Egypt, that he might reign over two kingdoms. 18 And he entered into Egypt with a great multitude, with chariots and elephants, and horsemen, and a great number of ships: 19 And he made war against Ptolemee king of Egypt, but Ptolemee was afraid at his presence, and fled, and many were wounded unto death. 20 And he took the strong cities in the land of Egypt: and he took the spoils of the land of Egypt.
21 And after Antiochus had ravaged Egypt in the hundred and forty-third year, he returned and went up against Israel. 22 And he went up to Jerusalem with a great multitude. 23 And he proudly entered into the sanctuary, and took away the golden altar, and the candlestick of light, and all the vessels thereof, and the table of proposition, and the pouring vessels, and the vials, and the little mortars of gold, and the veil, and the crowns, and the golden ornament that was before the temple: and he broke them all in pieces. 24 And he took the silver and gold, and the precious vessels: and he took the hidden treasures which he found: and when he had taken all away he departed into his own country. 25 And he made a great slaughter of men, and spoke very proudly.
26 And there was great mourning in Israel, and in every place where they were. 27 And the princes, and the ancients mourned, and the virgins and the young men were made feeble, and the beauty of the women was changed. 28 Every bridegroom took up lamentation: and the bride that sat in the marriage bed, mourned: 29 And the land was moved for the inhabitants thereof, and all the house of Jacob was covered with confusion. 30 And after two full years the king sent the chief collector of his tributes to the cities of Juda, and he came to Jerusalem with a great multitude.
30 "The chief collector"... Apollonius.
31 And he spoke to them peaceable words in deceit: and they believed him. 32 And he fell upon the city suddenly, and struck it with a great slaughter, and destroyed much people in Israel. 33 And he took the spoils of the city, and burnt it with fire, and threw down the houses thereof, and the walls thereof round about: 34 And they took the women captive, and the children, and the cattle they possessed. 35 And they built the city of David with a great and strong wall, and with strong towers, and made it a fortress for them:
35 "The city of David"... That is, the castle of Sion.
36 And they placed there a sinful nation, wicked men, and they fortified themselves therein: and they stored up armour, and victuals, and gathered together the spoils of Jerusalem; 37 And laid them up there: and they became a great snare. 38 And this was a place to lie in wait against the sanctuary, and an evil devil in Israel. 39 And they shed innocent blood round about the sanctuary, and defiled the holy place. 40 And the inhabitants of Jerusalem fled away by reason of them, and the city was made the habitation of strangers, and she became a stranger to her own seed, and her children forsook her.
38 "An evil devil"... That is, an adversary watching constantly to do harm, as the evil spirit is always watching and seeking whom he may devour.
41 Her sanctuary was desolate like a wilderness, her festival days were turned into mourning, her sabbaths into reproach, her honours were brought to nothing. 42 Her dishonour was increased according to her glory, and her excellency was turned into mourning. 43 And king Antiochus wrote to all his kingdom, that all the people should be one: and every one should leave his own law. 44 And all nations consented according to the word of king Antiochus. 45 And many of Israel consented to his service, and they sacrificed to idols, and profaned the sabbath.
46 And the king sent letters by the hands of messengers to Jerusalem, and to all the cities of Juda: that they should follow the law of the nations of the earth, 47 And should forbid holocausts and sacrifices, and atonements to be made in the temple of God. 48 And should prohibit the sabbath, and the festival days, to be celebrated. 49 And he commanded the holy places to be profaned, and the holy people of Israel. 50 And he commanded altars to be built, and temples, and idols, and swine's flesh to be immolated, and unclean beasts.
51 And that they should leave their children uncircumcised, and let their souls be defiled with all uncleannesses, and abominations, to the end that they should forget the law, and should change all the justifications of God. 52 And that whosoever would not do according to the word of king Antiochus should be put to death. 53 According to all these words he wrote to his whole kingdom, and he appointed rulers over the people that should force them to do these things. 54 And they commanded the cities of Juda to sacrifice. 55 Then many of the people were gathered to them that had forsaken the law of the Lord: and they committed evils in the land:
56 And they drove away the people of Israel into lurking holes, and into the secret places of fugitives. 57 On the fifteenth day of the month Casleu, in the hundred and forty-fifth year, king Antiochus set up the abominable idol of desolation upon the altar of God, and they built altars throughout all the cities of Juda round about: 58 And they burnt incense, and sacrificed at the doors of the houses, and in the streets. 59 And they cut in pieces, and burnt with fire the books of the law of God: 60 And every one with whom the books of the testament of the Lord were found, and whosoever observed the law of the Lord, they put to death, according to the edict of the king.
57 "The abominable idol"... Viz., the statue of Jupiter Olympius.
61 Thus by their power did they deal with the people of Israel, that were found in the cities month after month. 62 And on the five and twentieth day of the month they sacrificed upon the altar of the idol that was over against the altar of God. 63 Now the women that circumcised their children, were slain according to the commandment of king Antiochus. 64 And they hanged the children about their necks in all their houses: and those that had circumcised them, they put to death. 65 And many of the people of Israel determined with themselves, that they would not eat unclean things: and they chose rather to die than to be defiled with unclean meats.
66 And they would not break the holy law of God, and they were put to death: 67 And there was very great wrath upon the people.
The zeal and success of Mathathias. His exhortation to his sons at his death.
1 In those days arose Mathathias the son of John, the son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, from Jerusalem, and he abode in the mountain of Modin. 2 And he had five sons: John who was surnamed Gaddis: 3 And Simon, who was surnamed Thasi: 4 And Judas, who was called Machabeus: 5 And Eleazar, who was surnamed Abaron: and Jonathan, who was surnamed Apphus.
6 These saw the evils that were done in the people of Juda, and in Jerusalem. 7 And Mathathias said: Woe is me, wherefore was I born to see the ruin of my people, and the ruin of the holy city, and to dwell there, when it is given into the hands of the enemies? 8 The holy places are come into the hands of strangers: her temple is become as a man without honour. 9 The vessels of her glory are carried away captive: her old men are murdered in the streets, and her young men are fallen by the sword of the enemies. 10 What nation hath not inherited her kingdom, and gotten of her spoils?
11 All her ornaments are taken away. She that was free is made a slave. 12 And behold our sanctuary, and our beauty, and our glory is laid waste, and the Gentiles have defiled them. 13 To what end then should we live any longer? 14 And Mathathias and his sons rent their garments, and they covered themselves with haircloth, and made great lamentation. 15 And they that were sent from king Antiochus came thither, to compel them that were fled into the city of Modin, to sacrifice, and to burn incense, and to depart from the law of God.
16 And many of the people of Israel consented, and came to them: but Mathathias and his sons stood firm. 17 And they that were sent from Antiochus, answering, said to Mathathias: Thou art a ruler, and an honourable, and great man in this city, and adorned with sons, and brethren. 18 Therefore come thou first, and obey the king's commandment, as all nations have done, and the men of Juda, and they that remain in Jerusalem: and thou, and thy sons, shall be in the number of the king's friends, and enriched with gold, and silver, and many presents. 19 Then Mathathias answered, and said with a loud voice: Although all nations obey king Antiochus, so as to depart every man from the service of the law of his fathers, and consent to his commandments: 20 I and my sons, and my brethren will obey the law of our fathers.
21 God be merciful unto us: it is not profitable for us to forsake the law, and the justices of God: 22 We will not hearken to the words of king Antiochus, neither will we sacrifice, and transgress the commandments of our law, to go another way. 23 Now as he left off speaking these words, there came a certain Jew in the sight of all to sacrifice to the idols upon the altar in the city of Modin, according to the king's commandment. 24 And Mathathias saw and was grieved, and his reins trembled, and his wrath was kindled according to the judgment of the law, and running upon him he slew him upon the altar: 25 Moreover the man whom king Antiochus had sent, who compelled them to sacrifice, he slew at the same time, and pulled down the altar.
26 And shewed zeal for the law, as Phinees did by Zamri the son of Salomi. 27 And Mathathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: Every one that hath zeal for the law, and maintaineth the testament, let him follow me. 28 So he, and his sons fled into the mountains, and left all that they had in the city. 29 Then many that sought after judgment, and justice, went down into the desert: 30 And they abode there, they and their children, and their wives, and their cattle: because afflictions increased upon them.
31 And it was told to the king's men, and to the army that was in Jerusalem in the city of David, that certain men who had broken the king's commandment, were gone away into the secret places in the wilderness, and that many were gone after them. 32 And forthwith they went out towards them, and made war against them on the sabbath day, 33 And they said to them: Do you still resist? come forth, and do according to the edict of king Antiochus, and you shall live. 34 And they said: We will not come forth, neither will we obey the king's edict, to profane the sabbath day. 35 And they made haste to give them battle.
36 But they answered them not, neither did they cast a stone at them, nor stopped up the secret places, 37 Saying: Let us all die in our innocency: and heaven and earth shall be witnesses for us, that you put us to death wrongfully. 38 So they gave them battle on the sabbath: and they were slain with their wives, and their children, and their cattle, to the number of a thousand persons. 39 And Mathathias and his friends heard of it, and they mourned for them exceedingly. 40 And every man said to his neighbour: If we shall all do as our brethren have done, and not fight against the heathens for our lives, and our justifications: they will now quickly root us out of the earth.
41 And they determined in that day, saying: Whosoever shall come up against us to fight on the sabbath day, we will fight against him: and we will not all die, as our brethren that were slain in the secret places. 42 Then was assembled to them the congregation of the Assideans, the stoutest of Israel, every one that had a good will for the law. 43 And all they that fled from the evils, joined themselves to them, and were a support to them. 44 And they gathered an army, and slew the sinners in their wrath, and the wicked men in their indignation: and the rest fled to the nations for safety. 45 And Mathathias and his friends went round about, and they threw down the altars:
42 "The Assideans"... A set of men that led a religious life; and were zealous for the law and worship of God.
46 And they circumcised all the children whom they found in the confines of Israel that were uncircumcised: and they did valiantly. 47 And they pursued after the children of pride, and the work prospered in their hands: 48 And they recovered the law out of the hands of the nations, and out of the hands of the kings: and they yielded not the horn to the sinner. 49 Now the days drew near that Mathathias should die, and he said to his sons: Now hath pride and chastisement gotten strength, and the time of destruction, and the wrath of indignation: 50 Now therefore, O my sons, be ye zealous for the law, and give your lives for the covenant of your fathers.
48 "They yielded not the horn"... That is, they suffered not the power of Antiochus, that man of sin, to abolish the law and religion of God.
51 And call to remembrance the works of the fathers, which they have done in their generations: and you shall receive great glory, and an everlasting name. 52 Was not Abraham found faithful in temptation, and it was reputed to him unto justice? 53 Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and he was made lord of Egypt. 54 Phinees our father, by being fervent in the zeal of God, received the covenant of an everlasting priesthood. 55 Jesus, whilst he fulfilled the word, was made ruler in Israel.
55 "Jesus"... That is, Josue.
56 Caleb, for bearing witness before the congregation, received an inheritance. 57 David by his mercy obtained the throne of an everlasting kingdom. 58 Elias, while he was full of zeal for the law, was taken up into heaven. 59 Ananias and Azarias and Misael by believing, were delivered out of the flame. 60 Daniel in his innocency was delivered out of the mouth of the lions.
61 And thus consider through all generations: that none that trust in him fail in strength. 62 And fear not the words of a sinful man, for his glory is dung, and worms: 63 Today he is lifted up, and tomorrow he shall not be found, because he is returned into his earth; and his thought is come to nothing. 64 You therefore, my sons, take courage, and behave manfully in the law: for by it you shall be glorious. 65 And behold, I know that your brother Simon is a man of counsel: give ear to him always, and he shall be a father to you.
66 And Judas Machabeus who is valiant and strong from his youth up, let him be the leader of your army, and he shall manage the war of the people. 67 And you shall take to you all that observe the law: and revenge ye the wrong of your people. 68 Render to the Gentiles their reward, and take heed to the precepts of the law. 69 And he blessed them, and was joined to his fathers. 70 And he died in the hundred and forty-sixth year: and he was buried by his sons in the sepulchres of his fathers in Modin, and all Israel mourned for him with great mourning.
Judas Machabeus succeeds his father, and overthrows Apollonius and Seron. A great army is sent against him out of Syria. He prepares his people for battle by fasting and prayer.
1 Then his son Judas, called Machabeus, rose up in his stead. 2 And all his brethren helped him, and all they that had joined themselves to his father, and they fought with cheerfulness the battle of Israel. 3 And he got his people great honour, and put on a breastplate as a giant, and girt his warlike armour about him in battles, and protected the camp with his sword. 4 In his acts he was like a lion, and like a lion's whelp roaring for his prey. 5 And he pursued the wicked and sought them out, and them that troubled his people he burnt with fire:
6 And his enemies were driven away for fear of him, and all the workers of iniquity were troubled: and salvation prospered in his hand. 7 And he grieved many kings, and made Jacob glad with his works, and his memory is blessed for ever. 8 And he went through the cities of Juda, and destroyed the wicked out of them, and turned away wrath from Israel. 9 And he was renowned even to the utmost part of the earth, and he gathered them that were perishing. 10 And Apollonius gathered together the Gentiles, and a numerous and great army from Samaria, to make war against Israel.
11 And Judas understood it, and went forth to meet him: and he overthrew him, and killed him: and many fell down slain, the rest fled away. 12 And he took their spoils, and Judas took the sword of Apollonius, and fought with it all his lifetime. 13 And Seron captain of the army of Syria heard that Judas had assembled a company of the faithful, and a congregation with him, 14 And he said: I will get me a name, and will be glorified in the kingdom, and will overthrow Judas, and those that are with him, that have despised the edict of the king. 15 And he made himself ready: and the host of the wicked went up with him, strong succours, to be revenged of the children of Israel.
16 And they approached even as far as Bethoron: and Judas went forth to meet him, with a small company. 17 But when they saw the army coming to meet them, they said to Judas: How shall we, being few, be able to fight against so great a multitude and so strong, and we are ready to faint with fasting today? 18 And Judas said: It is an easy matter for many to be shut up in the hands of a few: and there is no difference in the sight of the God of heaven to deliver with a great multitude, or with a small company: 19 For the success of war is not in the multitude of the army, but strength cometh from heaven. 20 They come against us with an insolent multitude, and with pride, to destroy us, and our wives, and our children, and to take our spoils.
21 But we will fight for our lives and our laws: 22 And the Lord himself will overthrow them before our face: but as for you, fear them not. 23 And as soon as he had made an end of speaking, he rushed suddenly upon them: and Seron and his host were overthrown before him: 24 And he pursued him by the descent of Bethoron even to the plain, and there fell of them eight hundred men, and the rest fled into the land of the Philistines. 25 And the fear of Judas and of his brethren, and the dread of them fell upon all the nations round about them.
26 And his fame came to the king, and all nations told of the battles of Judas. 27 Now when king Antiochus heard these words, he was angry in his mind: and he sent and gathered the forces of all his kingdom, an exceeding strong army. 28 And he opened his treasury, and gave out pay to the army for a year: and he commanded them, that they should be ready for all things. 29 And he perceived that the money of his treasures failed, and that the tributes of the country were small because of the dissension, and the evil that he had brought upon the land, that he might take away the laws of old times: 30 And he feared that he should not have as formerly enough, for charges and gifts, which he had given before with a liberal hand: for he had abounded more than the kings that had been before him.
31 And he was greatly perplexed in mind, and purposed to go into Persia, and to take tributes of the countries, and to gather much money. 32 And he left Lysias, a nobleman of the blood royal, to oversee the affairs of the kingdom, from the river Euphrates even to the river of Egypt: 33 And to bring up his son Antiochus, till he came again. 34 And he delivered to him half the army, and the elephants: and he gave him charge concerning all that he would have done, and concerning the inhabitants of Judea, and Jerusalem: 35 And that he should send an army against them, to destroy and root out the strength of Israel, and the remnant of Jerusalem, and to take away the memory of them from that place:
36 And that he should settle strangers to dwell in all their coasts, and divide their land by lot. 37 So the king took the half of the army that remained, and went forth from Antioch the chief city of his kingdom, in the hundred and forty-seventh year: and he passed over the river Euphrates, and went through the higher countries. 38 Then Lysias chose Ptolemee the son of Dorymenus, and Nicanor, and Gorgias, mighty men of the king's friends. 39 And he sent with them forty thousand men, and seven thousand horsemen: to go into the land of Juda, and to destroy it according to the king's orders. 40 So they went forth with all their power, and came, and pitched near Emmaus in the plain country.
41 And the merchants of the countries heard the fame of them: and they took silver and gold in abundance, and servants: and they came into the camp, to buy the children of Israel for slaves: and there were joined to them the forces of Syria, and of the land of the strangers. 42 And Judas and his brethren saw that evils were multiplied, and that the armies approached to their borders: and they knew the orders the king had given to destroy the people and utterly abolish them. 43 And they said every man to his neighbour: Let us raise up the low condition of our people, and let us fight for our people, and our sanctuary. 44 And the assembly was gathered that they might be ready for battle: and that they might pray, and ask mercy and compassion. 45 Now Jerusalem was not inhabited, but was like a desert: there was none of her children that went in or out: and the sanctuary was trodden down: and the children of strangers were in the castle, there was the habitation of the Gentiles: and joy was taken away from Jacob, and the pipe and harp ceased there.
46 And they assembled together, and came to Maspha over against Jerusalem: for in Maspha was a place of prayer heretofore in Israel. 47 And they fasted that day, and put on haircloth, and put ashes upon their heads: and they rent their garments: 48 And they laid open the books of the law, in which the Gentiles searched for the likeness of their idols: 49 And they brought the priestly ornaments, and the firstfruits and tithes, and stirred up the Nazarites that had fulfilled their days: 50 And they cried with a loud voice toward heaven, saying: What shall we do with these, and whither shall we carry them?
51 For thy holies are trodden down, and are profaned, and thy priests are in mourning, and are brought low. 52 And behold the nations are come together against us to destroy us: thou knowest what they intend against us. 53 How shall we be able to stand before their face, unless thou, O God, help us? 54 Then they sounded with trumpets, and cried out with a loud voice. 55 And after this Judas appointed captains over the people, over thousands, and over hundreds, and over fifties, and over tens.
56 And he said to them that were building houses, or had betrothed wives, or were planting vineyards, or were fearful, that they should return every man to his house, according to the law. 57 So they removed the camp, and pitched on the south side of Emmaus. 58 And Judas said: Gird yourselves, and be valiant men, and be ready against the morning, that you may fight with these nations that are assembled against us to destroy us and our sanctuary. 59 For it is better for us to die in battle, than to see the evils of our nation, and of the holies: 60 Nevertheless as it shall be the will of God in heaven so be it done.
Judas routs the king's army. Gorgias flies before him. Lysias comes against him with a great army, but is defeated. Judas cleanses the temple, sets up a new altar, and fortifies the sanctuary.
1 Then Gorgias took five thousand men, and a thousand of the best horsemen: and they removed out of the camp by night. 2 That they might come upon the camp of the Jews, and strike them suddenly: and the men that were of the castle were their guides. 3 And Judas heard of it, and rose up, he and the valiant men, to attack the king's forces that were in Emmaus. 4 For as yet the army was dispersed from the camp. 5 And Gorgias came by night into the camp of Judas, and found no man, and he sought them in the mountains: for he said: These men flee from us.
4 "The army was dispersed"... That is, in different divisions, not altogether encamped.
6 And when it was day, Judas shewed himself in the plain with three thousand men only, who neither had armour nor swords. 7 And they saw the camp of the Gentiles that it was strong, and the men in breastplates, and the horsemen round about them, and these were trained up to war. 8 And Judas said to the men that were with him: Fear ye not their multitude, neither be ye afraid of their assault. 9 Remember in what manner our fathers were saved in the Red Sea, when Pharao pursued them with a great army. 10 And now let us cry to heaven: and the Lord will have mercy on us, and will remember the covenant of our fathers, and will destroy this army before our face this day:
6 "Who neither had armour nor swords"... Such as they wished for.
11 And all nations shall know that there is one that redeemeth and delivereth Israel. 12 And the strangers lifted up their eyes, and saw them coming against them. 13 And they went out of the camp to battle, and they that were with Judas sounded the trumpet. 14 And they joined battle: and the Gentiles were routed, and fled into the plain. 15 But all the hindmost of them fell by the sword, and they pursued them as far as Gezeron, and even to the plains of Idumea, and of Azotus, and of Jamnia: and there fell of them to the number of three thousand men.
16 And Judas returned again with his army that followed him, 17 And he said to the people: Be not greedy of the spoils: for there is war before us: 18 And Gorgias and his army are near us in the mountain: but stand ye now against our enemies, and overthrow them, and you shall take the spoils afterwards with safety. 19 And as Judas was speaking these words, behold part of them appeared looking forth from the mountain. 20 And Gorgias saw that his men were put to flight, and that they had set fire to the camp: for the smoke that was seen declared what was done.
21 And when they had seen this, they were seized with great fear, seeing at the same time Judas and his army in the plain ready to fight. 22 So they all fled away into the land of the strangers. 23 And Judas returned to take the spoils of the camp, and they got much gold, and silver, and blue silk, and purple of the sea, and great riches. 24 And returning home they sung a hymn, and blessed God in heaven, because he is good, because his mercy endureth for ever. 25 So Israel had a great deliverance that day.
26 And such of the strangers as escaped, went and told Lysias all that had happened. 27 And when he heard these things, he was amazed and discouraged: because things had not succeeded in Israel according to his mind, and as the king had commanded. 28 So the year following Lysias gathered together threescore thousand chosen men, and five thousand horsemen, that he might subdue them. 29 And they came into Judea, and pitched their tents in Bethoron, and Judas met them with ten thousand men. 30 And they saw that the army was strong, and he prayed, and said: Blessed art thou, O Saviour of Israel, who didst break the violence of the mighty by the hand of thy servant David, and didst deliver up the camp of the strangers into the hands of Jonathan the son of Saul and of his armourbearer.
31 Shut up this army in the hands of thy people Israel, and let them be confounded in their host and their horsemen. 32 Strike them with fear, and cause the boldness of their strength to languish, and let them quake at their own destruction. 33 Cast them down with the sword of them that love thee: and let all that know thy name, praise thee with hymns. 34 And they joined battle: and there fell of the army of Lysias five thousand men. 35 And when Lysias saw that his men were put to flight, and how bold the Jews were, and that they were ready either to live, or to die manfully, he went to Antioch, and chose soldiers, that they might come again into Judea with greater numbers.
36 Then Judas, and his brethren said: Behold our enemies are discomfited: let us go up now to cleanse the holy places and to repair them. 37 And all the army assembled together, and they went up into mount Sion. 38 And they saw the sanctuary desolate, and the altar profaned, and the gates burnt, and shrubs growing up in the courts as in a forest, or on the mountains, and the chambers joining to the temple thrown down. 39 And they rent their garments, and made great lamentation, and put ashes on their heads: 40 And they fell face down to the ground on their faces, and they sounded with the trumpets of alarm, and they cried towards heaven.
41 Then Judas appointed men to fight against them that were in the castle, till they had cleansed the holy places. 42 And he chose priests without blemish, whose will was set upon the law of God: 43 And they cleansed the holy places, and took away the stones that had been defiled into an unclean place. 44 And he considered about the altar of holocausts that had been profaned, what he should do with it. 45 And a good counsel came into their minds, to pull it down: lest it should be a reproach to them, because the Gentiles had defiled it; so they threw it down.
46 And they laid up the stones in the mountain of the temple in a convenient place, till there should come a prophet, and give answer concerning them. 47 Then they took whole stones according to the law, and built a new altar according to the former: 48 And they built up the holy places, and the things that were within the temple: and they sanctified the temple, and the courts. 49 And they made new holy vessels, and brought in the candlestick, and the altar of incense, and the table into the temple. 50 And they put incense upon the altar, and lighted up the lamps that were upon the candlestick, and they gave light in the temple.
51 And they set the loaves upon the table, and hung up the veils, and finished all the works that they had begun to make. 52 And they arose before the morning on the five and twentieth day of the ninth month (which is the month of Casleu) in the hundred and forty-eighth year. 53 And they offered sacrifice according to the law upon the new altar of holocausts which they had made. 54 According to the time, and according to the day wherein the heathens had defiled it, in the same was it dedicated anew with canticles, and harps, and lutes, and cymbals. 55 And all the people fell upon their faces, and adored, and blessed up to heaven, him that had prospered them.
56 And they kept the dedication of the altar eight days, and they offered holocausts with joy, and sacrifices of salvation, and of praise. 57 And they adorned the front of the temple with crowns of gold, and escutcheons, and they renewed the gates, and the chambers, and hanged doors upon them. 58 And there was exceeding great joy among the people, and the reproach of the Gentiles was turned away. 59 And Judas, and his brethren, and all the church of Israel decreed, that the day of the dedication of the altar should be kept in its season from year to year for eight days, from the five and twentieth day of the month of Casleu, with joy and gladness. 60 They built up also at that time mount Sion, with high walls, and strong towers round about, lest the Gentiles should at any time come, and tread it down as they did before.
61 And he placed a garrison there to keep it, and he fortified it to secure Bethsura, that the people might have a defence against Idumea.
Judas and his brethren attack the enemies of their country, and deliver them that were distressed. Josephus and Azarius, attempting contrary to order to fight against their enemies, are defeated.
1 Now it came to pass, when the nations round about heard that the altar and the sanctuary were built up as before, that they were exceeding angry. 2 And they thought to destroy the generation of Jacob that were among them, and they began to kill some of the people, and to persecute them. 3 Then Judas fought against the children of Esau in Idumea, and them that were in Acrabathane: because they beset the Israelites around about, and he made a great slaughter of them. 4 And he remembered the malice of the children of Bean: who were a snare and a stumblingblock to the people, by lying in wait for them in the way. 5 And they were shut up by him in towers, and he set upon them, and devoted them to utter destruction, and burnt their towers with fire, and all that were in them.
6 Then he passed over to the children of Ammon, where he found a mighty power, and much people, and Timotheus was their captain: 7 And he fought many battles with them, and they were discomfited in their sight, and he smote them: 8 And he took the city of Gazer and her towns, and returned into Judea. 9 And the Gentiles that were in Galaad, assembled themselves together against the Israelites that were in their quarters to destroy them: and they fled into the fortress of Datheman. 10 And they sent letters to Judas and his brethren, saying, The heathens that are round about are gathered together against us, to destroy us:
11 And they are preparing to come, and to take the fortress into which we are fled: and Timotheus is the captain of their host. 12 Now therefore come, and deliver us out of their hands, for many of us are slain. 13 And all our brethren that were in the places of Tubin, are killed: and they have carried away their wives, and their children, captives, and taken their spoils, and they have slain there almost a thousand men. 14 And while they were yet reading these letters, behold there came other messengers out of Galilee with their garments rent, who related according to these words: 15 Saying, that they of Ptolemais, and of Tyre, and of Sidon, were assembled against them, and all Galilee is filled with strangers, in order to consume us.
16 Now when Judas and all the people heard these words, a great assembly met together to consider what they should do for their brethren that were in trouble, and were assaulted by them. 17 And Judas said to Simon his brother: Choose thee men, and go, and deliver thy brethren in Galilee: and I, and my brother Jonathan will go into the country of Galaad. 18 And he left Joseph the son of Zacharias, and Azarias captains of the people with the remnant of the army in Judea to keep it: 19 And he commanded them, saying: Take ye the charge of this people: but make no war against the heathens, till we return. 20 Now three thousand men were allotted to Simon, to go into Galilee: and eight thousand to Judas to go into the land of Galaad.
21 And Simon went into Galilee, and fought many battles with the heathens: and the heathens were discomfited before his face, and he pursued them even to the gate of Ptolemais. 22 And there fell of the heathens almost three thousand men, and he took the spoils of them, 23 And he took with him those that were in Galilee and in Arbatis with their wives, and children, and all that they had, and he brought them into Judea with great joy. 24 And Judas Machabeus, and Jonathan his brother passed over the Jordan, and went three days' journey through the desert. 25 And the Nabutheans met them, and received them in a peaceable manner, and told them all that happened to their brethren in the land of Galaad,
26 And that many of them were shut up in Barasa, and in Bosor, and in Alima, and in Casphor, and in Mageth, and in Carnaim: all these strong and great cities. 27 Yea, and that they were kept shut up in the rest of the cities of Galaad, and that they had appointed to bring their army on the morrow near to these cities, and to take them and to destroy them all in one day. 28 Then Judas and his army suddenly turned their march into the desert, to Bosor, and took the city: and he slew every male by the edge of the sword, and took all their spoils, and burnt it with fire. 29 And they removed from thence by night, and went till they came to the fortress. 30 And it came to pass that early in the morning, when they lifted up their eyes, behold there were people without number, carrying ladders and engines to take the fortress, and assault them.
31 And Judas saw that the fight was begun, and the cry of the battle went up to heaven like a trumpet, and a great cry out of the city: 32 And he said to his host: Fight ye today for your brethren. 33 And he came with three companies behind them, and they sounded their trumpets, and cried out in prayer. 34 And the host of Timotheus understood that it was Machabeus, and they fled away before his face: and they made a great slaughter of them: and there fell of them in that day almost eight thousand men. 35 And Judas turned aside to Maspha, and assaulted, and took it, and he slew every male thereof, and took the spoils thereof, and burnt it with fire.
36 From thence he marched, and took Casbon, and Mageth, and Bosor, and the rest of the cities of Galaad. 37 But after this Timotheus gathered another army, and camped over against Raphon beyond the torrent. 38 And Judas sent men to view the army: and they brought him word, saying: All the nations, that are round about us, are assembled unto him an army exceeding great: 39 And they have hired the Arabians to help them, and they have pitched their tents beyond the torrent, ready to come to fight against thee. And Judas went to meet them. 40 And Timotheus said to the captains of his army: When Judas and his army come near the torrent of water, if he pass over unto us first, we shall not be able to withstand him: for he will certainly prevail over us.
41 But if he be afraid to pass over, and camp on the other side of the river, we will pass over to them and shall prevail against him. 42 Now when Judas came near the torrent of water, he set the scribes of the people by the torrent, and commanded them, saying: Suffer no man to stay behind: but let all come to the battle. 43 And he passed over to them first, and all the people after him, and all the heathens were discomfited before them, and they threw away their weapons, and fled to the temple that was in Carnaim. 44 And he took that city, and the temple he burnt with fire, with all things that were therein: and Carnaim was subdued, and could not stand against the face of Judas. 45 And Judas gathered together all the Israelites that were in the land of Galaad, from the least even to the greatest, and their wives, and children, and an army exceeding great, to come into the land of Juda.
46 And they came as far as Ephron: now this was a great city situate in the way, strongly fortified, and there was no means to turn from it on the right hand or on the left, but the way was through the midst of it. 47 And they that were in the city, shut themselves in, and stopped up the gates with stones: and Judas sent to them with peaceable words, 48 Saying: Let us pass through your land, to go into our country: and no man shall hurt you: we will only pass through on foot. But they would not open to them. 49 Then Judas commanded proclamation to be made in the camp, that they should make an assault every man in the place where he was. 50 And the men of the army drew near, and he assaulted that city all the day, and all the night, and the city was delivered into his hands:
51 And they slew every male with the edge of the sword, and he razed the city, and took the spoils thereof, and passed through all the city over them that were slain. 52 Then they passed over the Jordan to the great plain that is over against Bethsan. 53 And Judas gathered together the hindmost, and he exhorted the people all the way through, till they came into the land of Juda. 54 And they went up to mount Sion with joy and gladness, and offered holocausts, because not one of them was slain, till they had returned in peace. 55 Now in the days that Judas and Jonathan were in the land of Galaad, and Simon his brother in Galilee before Ptolemais,
56 Joseph the son of Zacharias, and Azarias captain of the soldiers, heard of the good success, and the battles that were fought. 57 And he said: Let us also get us a name, and let us go fight against the Gentiles that are round about us. 58 And he gave charge to them that were in his army, and they went towards Jamnia. 59 And Gorgias and his men went out of the city, to give them battle. 60 And Joseph and Azarias were put to flight, and were pursued unto the borders of Judea: and there fell, on that day, of the people of Israel about two thousand men, and there was a great overthrow of the people:
61 Because they did not hearken to Judas, and his brethren, thinking that they should do manfully. 62 But they were not of the seed of those men by whom salvation was brought to Israel. 63 And the men of Juda were magnified exceedingly in the sight of all Israel, and of all the nations where their name was heard. 64 And people assembled to them with joyful acclamations. 65 Then Judas and his brethren went forth and attacked the children of Esau, in the land toward the south, and he took Chebron, and her towns: and he burnt the walls thereof and the towers all round it.
66 And he removed his camp to go into the land of the aliens, and he went through Samaria. 67 In that day some priests fell in battle, while desiring to do manfully they went out unadvisedly to fight. 68 And Judas turned to Azotus into the land of the strangers, and he threw down their altars, and he burnt the statues of their gods with fire: and he took the spoils of the cities, and returned into the land of Juda.
The fruitless repentance and death of Antiochus. His son comes against Judas with a formidable army. He besieges Sion: but at last makes peace with the Jews.
1 Now king Antiochus was going through the higher countries, and he heard that the city of Elymais in Persia was greatly renowned, and abounding in silver and gold. 2 And that there was in it a temple, exceeding rich: and coverings of gold, and breastplates, and shields which king Alexander, son of Philip the Macedonian that reigned first in Greece, had left there. 3 Lo, he came, and sought to take the city and to pillage it: But he was not able, because the design was known to them that were in the city. 4 And they rose up against him in battle, and he fled away from thence, and departed with great sadness, and returned towards Babylonia. 5 And whilst he was in Persia, there came one that told him, how the armies that were in the land of Juda were put to flight:
6 And that Lysias went with a very great power, and was put to flight before the face of the Jews, and that they were grown strong by the armour, and power, and store of spoils, which they had gotten out of the camps which they had destroyed: 7 And that they had thrown down the abomination which he had set up upon the altar in Jerusalem, and that they had compassed about the sanctuary with high walls as before, and Bethsura also his city. 8 And it came to pass when the king heard these words, that he was struck with fear, and exceedingly moved: and he laid himself down upon his bed, and fell sick for grief, because it had not fallen out to him as he imagined. 9 And he remained there many days: for great grief came more and more and more upon him, and he made account that he should die. 10 And he called for all his friends, and said to them: Sleep is gone from my eyes, and I am fallen away, and my heart is cast down for anxiety.
11 And I said in my heart: Into how much tribulation am I come, and into what floods of sorrow, wherein now I am: I that was pleasant and beloved in my power! 12 But now I remember the evils that I have done in Jerusalem, from whence also I took away all the spoils of gold, and of silver that were in it, and I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Juda without cause. 13 I know therefore that for this cause these evils have found me: and behold I perish with great grief in a strange land. 14 Then he called Philip, one of his friends, and he made him regent over all his kingdom. 15 And he gave him the crown, and his robe, and his ring, that he should go to Antiochus his son, and should bring him up for the kingdom.
16 So king Antiochus died there in the year one hundred and forty-nine. 17 And Lysias understood that the king was dead, and he set up Antiochus his son to reign, whom he brought up young: and he called his name Eupator. 18 Now they that were in the castle, had shut up the Israelites round about the holy places: and they were continually seeking their hurt, and to strengthen the Gentiles. 19 And Judas purposed to destroy them: and he called together all the people, to besiege them. 20 And they came together, and besieged them in the year one hundred and fifty, and they made battering slings and engines.
21 And some of the besieged got out: and some wicked men of Israel joined themselves unto them. 22 And they went to the king, and said: How long dost thou delay to execute the judgment, and to revenge our brethren? 23 We determined to serve thy father and to do according to his orders, and obey his edicts: 24 And for this they of our nation are alienated from us, and have slain as many of us as they could find, and have spoiled our inheritances. 25 Neither have they put forth their hand against us only, but also against all our borders.
26 And behold they have approached this day to the castle of Jerusalem to take it, and they have fortified the stronghold of Bethsura: 27 And unless thou speedily prevent them, they will do greater things than these, and thou shalt not be able to subdue them. 28 Now when the king heard this, he was angry: and he called together all his friends, and the captains of his army, and them that were over the horsemen. 29 There came also to him from other realms, and from the islands of the sea hired troops. 30 And the number of his army was an hundred thousand footmen, and twenty thousand horsemen, and thirty-two elephants, trained to battle.
31 And they went through Idumea, and approached to Bethsura, and fought many days, and they made engines: but they sallied forth and burnt them with fire, and fought manfully. 32 And Judas departed from the castle, and removed the camp to Bethzacharam, over against the king's camp. 33 And the king rose before it was light, and made his troops march on fiercely towards the way of Bethzacharam: and the armies made themselves ready for the battle, and they sounded the trumpets: 34 And they shewed the elephants the blood of grapes, and mulberries to provoke them to fight. 35 And they distributed the beasts by the legions: and there stood by every elephant a thousand men in coats of mail, and with helmets of brass on their heads: and five hundred horsemen set in order were chosen for every beast.
31 "But they sallied forth"... That is, the citizens of Bethsura sallied forth and burnt them, that is, burnt the engines of the besiegers.
36 These before the time wheresoever the beast was, the were there: and withersoever it went, they went, and they departed not from it. 37 And upon the beast, there were strong wooden towers, which covered every one of them: and engines upon them: and upon every one thirty-two valiant men, who fought from above; and an Indian to rule the beast. 38 And the rest of the horsemen he placed on this side and on that side at the two wings, with trumpets to stir up the army, and to hasten them forward that stood thick together in the legions thereof. 39 Now when the sun shone upon the shields of gold, and of brass, the mountains glittered therewith, and they shone like lamps of fire. 40 And part of the king's army was distinguished by the high mountains, and the other part by the low places: and they marched on warily and orderly.
36 "These before the time"... That is, these were ready for every occasion.
41 And all the inhabitants of the land were moved at the noise of their multitude, and the marching of the company, and the rattling of the armour, for the army was exceeding great and strong. 42 And Judas and his army drew near for battle: and there fell of the king's army six hundred men. 43 And Eleazar the son of Saura saw one of the beasts harnessed with the king's harness: and it was higher than the other beasts: and it seemed to him that the king was on it: 44 And he exposed himself to deliver his people and to get himself an everlasting name. 45 And he ran up to it boldly in the midst of the legion, killing on the right hand, and on the left, and they fell by him on this side and that side.
46 And he went between the feet of the elephant, and put himself under it: and slew it, and it fell to the ground upon him, and he died there. 47 Then they seeing the strength of the king and the fierceness of his army, turned away from them. 48 But the king's army went up against them to Jerusalem: and the king's army pitched their tents against Judea and mount Sion. 49 And he made peace with them that were in Bethsura: and they came forth out of the city, because they had no victuals, being shut up there, for it was the year of rest to the land. 50 And the king took Bethsura: and he placed there a garrison to keep it.
51 And he turned his army against the sanctuary for many days: and he set up there battering slings, and engines and instruments to cast fire, and engines to cast stones and javelins, and pieces to shoot arrows, and slings. 52 And they also made engines against their engines, and they fought for many days. 53 But there were no victuals in the city, because it was the seventh year: and such as had stayed in Judea of them that came from among the nations, had eaten the residue of all that which had been stored up. 54 And there remained in the holy places but a few, for the famine had prevailed over them: and they were dispersed every man to his own place. 55 Now Lysias heard that Philip, whom king Antiochus while he lived had appointed to bring up his son Antiochus, and to reign, to be king,
56 Was returned from Persia, and Media, with the army that went with him, and that he sought to take upon him the affairs of the kingdom: 57 Wherefore he made haste to go, and say to the king and to the captains of the army: We decay daily, and our provision of victuals is small, and the place that we lay siege to is strong, and it lieth upon us to take order for the affairs of the kingdom. 58 Now therefore let us come to an agreement with these men, and make peace with them and with all their nation. 59 And let us covenant with them, that they may live according to their own laws as before. For because of our despising their laws, they have been provoked, and have done all these things. 60 And the proposal was acceptable in the sight of the king, and of the princes: and he sent to them to make peace: and they accepted of it.
61 And the king and the princes swore to them: and they came out of the stronghold. 62 Then the king entered into mount Sion, and saw the strength of the place: and he quickly broke the oath that he had taken, and gave commandment to throw down the wall round about. 63 And he departed in haste, and returned to Antioch, where he found Philip master of the city: and he fought against him, and took the city.
Demetrius is made king, and sends Bacchides and Alcimus the priest into Judea, and after them Nicanor, who is slain by Judas with all his army.
1 In the hundred and fifty-first year Demetrius the son of Seleucus departed from the city of Rome, and came up with a few men into a city of the sea coast, and reigned there. 2 And it came to pass, as he entered into the house of the kingdom of his fathers, that the army seized upon Antiochus, and Lysias, to bring them unto him. 3 And when he knew it, he said: Let me not see their face. 4 So the army slew them. And Demetrius sat upon the throne of his kingdom: 5 And there came to him the wicked and ungodly men of Israel: And Alcimus was at the head of them, who desired to be made high priest.
6 And they accused the people to the king, saying: Judas and his brethren have destroyed all thy friends, and he hath driven us out of our land. 7 Now therefore send some man whom thou trustest, and let him go, and see all the havock he hath made amongst us, and in the king's lands: and let him punish all his friends and their helpers. 8 Then the king chose Bacchides, one of his friends that ruled beyond the great river in the kingdom, and was faithful to the king: and he sent him, 9 To see the havock that Judas had made: and the wicked Alcimus he made high priest, and commanded him to take revenge upon the children of Israel. 10 And they arose, and came with a great army into the land of Juda: and they sent messengers, and spoke to Judas and his brethren with peaceable words deceitfully.
11 But they gave no heed to their words: for they saw that they were come with a great army. 12 Then there assembled to Alcimus and Bacchides a company of the scribes to require things that are just: 13 And first the Assideans that were among the children of Israel, and they sought peace of them. 14 For they said: One that is a priest of the seed of Aaron is come, he will not deceive us. 15 And he spoke to them peaceably: and he swore to them, saying: We will do you no harm nor your friends.
16 And they believed him. And he took threescore of them, and slew them in one day, according to the word that is written: 17 The flesh of thy saints, and the blood of them they have shed round about Jerusalem, and there was none to bury them. 18 Then fear and trembling fell upon all the people: for they said: There is no truth, nor justice among them: for they have broken the covenant, and the oath which they made. 19 And Bacchides removed the camp from Jerusalem, and pitched in Bethzecha: and he sent, and took many of them that were fled away from him, and some of the people he killed, and threw them into a great pit. 20 Then he committed the country to Alcimus, and left with him troops to help him. So Bacchides went away to the king:
21 But Alcimus did what he could to maintain his chief priesthood. 22 And they that disturbed the people resorted to him, and they got the land of Juda into their power, and did much hurt in Israel. 23 And Judas saw all the evils that Alcimus, and they that were with him, did to the children of Israel, much more than the Gentiles. 24 And he went out into all the coasts of Juda round about, and took vengeance upon the men that had revolted, and they ceased to go forth any more into the country. 25 And Alcimus saw that Judas, and they that were with him prevailed: and he knew that he could not stand against them, and he went back to the king, and accused them of many crimes.
26 And the king sent Nicanor one of his principal lords, who was a great enemy to Israel: and he commanded him to destroy the people. 27 And Nicanor came to Jerusalem with a great army, and he sent to Judas and to his brethren deceitfully with friendly words, 28 Saying: Let there be no fighting between me and you: I will come with a few men to see your faces with peace. 29 And he came to Judas, and they saluted one another peaceably: and the enemies were prepared to take away Judas by force. 30 And the thing was known to Judas that he was come to him with deceit: and he was much afraid of him, and would not see his face any more.
31 And Nicanor knew that his counsel was discovered: and he went out to fight against Judas near Capharsalama. 32 And there fell of Nicanor's army almost five thousand men, and they fled into the city of David. 33 And after this Nicanor went up into mount Sion: and some of the priests and the people came out to salute him peaceably, and to shew him the holocausts that were offered for the king. 34 But he mocked them and despised them, and abused them: and he spoke proudly, 35 And swore in anger, saying: Unless Judas and his army be delivered into my hands, as soon as ever I return in peace, I will burn this house. And he went out in a great rage.
36 And the priests went in, and stood before the face of the altar and the temple: and weeping, they said: 37 Thou, O Lord, hast chosen this house for thy name to be called upon therein, that it might be a house of prayer and supplication for thy people. 38 Be avenged of this man, and his army, and let them fall by the sword: remember their blasphemies, and suffer them not to continue any longer. 39 Then Nicanor went out from Jerusalem, and encamped near to Bethoron: and an army of Syria joined him. 40 But Judas pitched in Adarsa with three thousand men: and Judas prayed, and said:
41 O Lord, when they that were sent by king Sennacherib blasphemed thee, an angel went out, and slew of them a hundred and eighty-five thousand: 42 Even so destroy this army in our sight today, and let the rest know that he hath spoken ill against thy sanctuary: and judge thou him according to his wickedness. 43 And the armies joined battle on the thirteenth day of the month Adar: and the army of Nicanor was defeated, and he himself was first slain in the battle. 44 And when his army saw that Nicanor was slain, they threw away their weapons, and fled: 45 And they pursued after them one day's journey from Adazer, even till ye come to Gazara, and they sounded the trumpets after them with signals.
46 And they went forth out of all the towns of Judea round about, and they pushed them with the horns, and they turned again to them, and they were all slain with the sword, and there was not left of them so much as one. 47 And they took the spoils of them for a booty, and they cut off Nicanor's head, and his right hand, which he had proudly stretched out, and they brought it, and hung it up over against Jerusalem. 48 And the people rejoiced exceedingly, and they spent that day with great joy. 49 And he ordained that this day should be kept every year, being the thirteenth of the month of Adar. 50 And the land of Juda was quiet for a short time.
Judas hears of the great character of the Romans: he makes a league with them.
1 Now Judas heard of the fame of the Romans, that they are powerful and strong, and willingly agree to all things that are requested of them: and that whosoever have come to them, they have made amity with them, and that they are mighty in power. 2 And they heard of their battles, and their noble acts, which they had done in Galatia, how they conquered them, and brought them under tribute: 3 And how great things they had done in the land of Spain, and that they had brought under their power the mines of silver and of gold that are there, and had gotten possession of all the place by their counsel and patience: 4 And had conquered places that were very far off from them, and kings that came against them from the ends of the earth, and had overthrown them with great slaughter: and the rest pay them tribute every year. 5 And that they had defeated in battle Philip, and Perses the king of the Ceteans, and the rest that had borne arms against them, and had conquered them:
2 "They heard"... What is here set down of the history and character of the ancient Romans, is not an assertion, or affirmation of the sacred writer: but only a relation of what Judas had heard of them.
5 "Ceteans"... That is, the Macedonians.
6 And how Antiochus the great king of Asia, who went to fight against them, having a hundred and twenty elephants, with horsemen, and chariots, and a very great army, was routed by them: 7 And how they took him alive, and appointed to him, that both he and they that should reign after him, should pay a great tribute, and that he should give hostages, and that which was agreed upon, 8 And the country of the Indians, and of the Medes, and of the Lydians, some of their best provinces: and those which they had taken from them they gave to king Eumenes. 9 And that they who were in Greece had a mind to go and to destroy them: and they had knowledge thereof, 10 And they sent a general against them, and fought with them, and many of them were slain, and they carried away their wives and their children captives, and spoiled them, and took possession of their land, and threw down their walls, and brought them to be their servants unto this day.
8 "Eumenes"... King of Pergamus.
11 And the other kingdoms, and islands, that at any time had resisted them, they had destroyed and brought under their power. 12 But with their friends, and such as relied upon them, they kept amity, and had conquered kingdoms that were near, and that were far off: for all that heard their name, were afraid of them. 13 That whom they had a mind to help to a kingdom, those reigned: and whom they would, they deposed from a kingdom: and they were greatly exalted. 14 And none of all these wore a crown, or was clothed in purple, to be magnified thereby. 15 And that they made themselves a senate house, and consulted daily three hundred and twenty men, that sat in council always for the people, that they might do the things that were right.
16 And that they committed their government to one man every year, to rule over all their country, and they all obey one, and there is no envy, nor jealousy amongst them. 17 So Judas chose Eupolemus the son of John, the son of Jacob, and Jason the son of Eleazar, and he sent them to Rome to make a league of amity and confederacy with them. 18 And that they might take off from them the yoke of the Grecians, for they saw that they oppressed the kingdom of Israel with servitude. 19 And they went to Rome, a very long journey, and they entered into the senate house, and said: 20 Judas Machabeus, and his brethren, and the people of the Jews have sent us to you, to make alliance and peace with you, and that we may be registered your confederates and friends.
16 "To one man"... There were two consuls: but one only ruled at one time, each in his day.-- Ibid.
16 "No envy"... So Judas had heard: and it was so far true, with regard to the ancient Romans, that as yet no envy or jealousy had divided them into such open factions and civil wars, as they afterwards experienced in the time of Marius and Sylla, etc.
21 And the proposal was pleasing in their sight. 22 And this is the copy of the writing that they wrote back again, graven in tables of brass, and sent to Jerusalem, that it might be with them there for a memorial of the peace and alliance. 23 GOOD SUCCESS BE TO THE ROMANS, and to the people of the Jews, by sea and by land for ever: and far be the sword and enemy from them. 24 But if there come first any war upon the Romans, or any of their confederates, in all their dominions: 25 The nation of the Jews shall help them according as the time shall direct, with all their heart:
26 Neither shall they give them, whilst they are fighting, or furnish them with wheat, or arms, or money, or ships, as it hath seemed good to the Romans: and they shall obey their orders, without taking any thing of them. 27 In like manner also if war shall come first upon the nation of the Jews, the Romans shall help them with all their heart, according as the time shall permit them. 28 And there shall not be given to them that come to their aid, either wheat, or arms, or money, or ships, as it hath seemed good to the Romans: and they shall observe their orders without deceit. 29 According to these articles did the Romans covenant with the people of the Jews. 30 And if after this one party or the other shall have a mind to add to these articles, or take away anything, they may do it at their pleasure: and whatsoever they shall add, or take away, shall be ratified.
31 Moreover concerning the evils that Demetrius the king hath done against them, we have written to him, saying: Why hast thou made thy yoke heavy upon our friends, and allies, the Jews? 32 If therefore they come again to us complaining of thee, we will do them justice, and will make war against thee by sea and land.
Bacchides is sent again into Judea: Judas fights against him with eight hundred men and is slain. Jonathan succeeds him and revenges the murder of his brother John. He fights against Bacchides. Alcimus dies miserably. Bacchides besieges Bethbessen. He is forced to raise the siege and leave the country.
1 In the mean time when Demetrius heard that Nicanor and his army were fallen in battle, he sent again Bacchides and Alcimus into Judea; and the right wing of his army with them. 2 And they took the road that leadeth to Galgal, and they camped in Masaloth, which is in Arabella: and they made themselves masters of it, and slew many people. 3 In the first month of the hundred and fifty-second year they brought the army to Jerusalem: 4 And they arose, and went to Berea with twenty thousand men, and two thousand horsemen. 5 Now Judas had pitched his tents in Laisa, and three thousand chosen men with him:
6 And they saw the multitude of the army that they were many, and they were seized with great fear: and many withdrew themselves out of the camp, and there remained of them no more than eight hundred men. 7 And Judas saw that his army slipped away, and the battle pressed upon him, and his heart was cast down: because he had not time to gather them together, and he was discouraged. 8 Then he said to them that remained: Let us arise, and go against our enemies, if we may be able to fight against them. 9 But they dissuaded him, saying: We shall not be able, but let us save our lives now, and return to our brethren, and then we will fight against them: for we are but few. 10 Then Judas said: God forbid we should do this thing, and flee away from them: but if our time be come, let us die manfully for our brethren, and let us not stain our glory.
11 And the army removed out of the camp, and they stood over against them: and the horsemen were divided into two troops, and the slingers, and the archers went before the army, and they that were in the front were all men of valour. 12 And Bacchides was in the right wing, and the legion drew near on two sides, and they sounded the trumpets: 13 And they also were on Judas' side, even they also cried out, and the earth shook at the noise of the armies: and the battle was fought from morning even unto the evening. 14 And Judas perceived that the stronger part of the army of Bacchides was on the right side, and all the stout of heart came together with him: 15 And the right wing was discomfited by them, and he pursued them even to the mount Azotus.
16 And they that were in the left wing saw that the right wing was discomfited, and they followed after Judas, and them that were with him, at their back: 17 And the battle was hard fought, and there fell many wounded of the one side and of the other. 18 And Judas was slain, and the rest fled away. 19 And Jonathan and Simon took Judas their brother, and buried him in the sepulchre of their fathers in the city of Modin. 20 And all the people of Israel bewailed him with great lamentation, and they mourned for him many days.
21 And said: How is the mighty man fallen, that saved the people of Israel! 22 But the rest of the words of the wars of Judas, and of the noble acts that he did, and of his greatness, are not written: for they were very many. 23 And it came to pass after the death of Judas, that the wicked began to put forth their heads in all the confines of Israel, and all the workers of iniquity rose up. 24 In those days there was a very great famine, and they and all their country yielded to Bacchides. 25 And Bacchides chose the wicked men, and made them lords of the country:
26 And they sought out, and made diligent search after the friends of Judas, and brought them to Bacchides, and he took vengeance of them, and abused them. 27 And there was a great tribulation in Israel, such as was not since the day, that there was no prophet seen in Israel. 28 And all the friends of Judas came together, and said to Jonathan: 29 Since thy brother Judas died, there is not a man like him to go forth against our enemies, Bacchides, and them that are the enemies of our nation. 30 Now therefore we have chosen thee this day to be our prince, and captain in his stead to fight our battles.
31 So Jonathan took upon him the government at that time, and rose up in the place of Judas his brother. 32 And Bacchides had knowledge of it, and sought to kill him. 33 And Jonathan and Simon his brother, knew it, and all that were with them: and they fled into the desert of Thecua, and they pitched by the water of the lake of Asphar, 34 And Bacchides understood it, and he came himself with all his army over the Jordan on the sabbath day. 35 And Jonathan sent his brother a captain of the people, to desire the Nabutheans his friends, that they would lend them their equipage, which was copious.
36 And the children of Jambri came forth out of Madaba, and took John, and all that he had, and went away with them. 37 After this it was told Jonathan, and Simon his brother, that the children of Jambri made a great marriage, and were bringing the bride out of Madaba, the daughter of one of the great princes of Chanaan, with great pomp. 38 And the remembered the blood of John their brother: and they went up, and hid themselves under the covert of the mountain. 39 And they lifted up their eyes, and saw: and behold a tumult, and great preparation: and the bridegroom came forth, and his friends, and his brethren to meet them with timbrels, and musical instruments, and many weapons. 40 And they rose up against them from the place where they lay in ambush, and slew them, and there fell many wounded, and the rest fled into the mountains, and they took all their spoils:
41 And the marriage was turned into mourning, and the noise of their musical instruments into lamentation. 42 And they took revenge for the blood of their brother: and they returned to the bank of the Jordan. 43 And Bacchides heard it, and he came on the sabbath day even to the bank of the Jordan with a great power. 44 And Jonathan said to his company: Let us arise, and fight against our enemies: for it is not now as yesterday, and the day before. 45 And behold the battle is before us, and the water of the Jordan on this side and on that side, and banks, and marshes, and woods: and there is no place for us to turn aside.
46 Now therefore cry ye to heaven, that ye may be delivered from the hand of your enemies. And they joined battle. 47 And Jonathan stretched forth his hand to strike Bacchides, but he turned away from him backwards. 48 And Jonathan, and they that were with him leaped into the Jordan, and swam over the Jordan to them: 49 And there fell of Bacchides' side that day a thousand men: and they returned to Jerusalem, 50 And they built strong cities in Judea, the fortress that was in Jericho, and in Ammaus, and in Bethoron, and in Bethel, and Thamnata, and Phara, and Thopo, with high walls, and gates, and bars.
51 And he placed garrisons in them, that they might wage war against Israel: 52 And he fortified the city of Bethsura, and Gazara, and the castle, and set garrisons in them, and provisions of victuals: 53 And he took the sons of the chief men of the country for hostages, and put them in the castle in Jerusalem in custody. 54 Now in the year one hundred and fifty-three, the second month, Alcimus commanded the walls of the inner court of the sanctuary to be thrown down, and the works of the prophets to be destroyed: and he began to be destroyed: and he began to destroy. 55 At that time Alcimus was struck: and his works were hindered, and his mouth was stopped, and he was taken with a palsy, so that he could no more speak a word, nor give order concerning his house.
56 And Alcimus died at that time in great torment. 57 And Bacchides saw that Alcimus was dead: and he returned to the king, and the land was quiet for two years. 58 And all the wicked held a council, saying: Behold Jonathan, and they that are with him, dwell at ease, and without fear: now therefore let us bring Bacchides hither, and he shall take them all in one night. 59 So they went, and gave him counsel. 60 And he arose to come with a great army: and he sent secretly letters to his adherents that were in Judea, to seize upon Jonathan, and them that were with him: but they could not, for their design was known to them.
61 And he apprehended of the men of the country, that were the principal authors of the mischief, fifty men, and slew them. 62 And Jonathan, and Simon, and they that were with him retired into Bethbessen, which is in the desert: and he repaired the breaches thereof, and they fortified it. 63 And when Bacchides knew it, he gathered together all his multitude: and sent word to them that were of Judea. 64 And he came, and camped above Bethbessen, and fought against it many days, and made engines. 65 But Jonathan left his brother Simon in the city, and went forth into the country: and came with a number of men.
66 And struck Odares, and his brethren, and the children of Phaseron in their tents, and he began to slay, and to increase in forces. 67 But Simon and they that were with him, sallied out of the city, and burnt the engines. 68 And they fought against Bacchides, and he was discomfited by them: and they afflicted him exceedingly, for his counsel, and his enterprise was in vain. 69 And he was angry with the wicked men that had given him counsel to come into their country, and he slew many of them: and he purposed to return with the rest into their country. 70 And Jonathan had knowledge of it, and he sent ambassadors to him to make peace with him, and to restore to him the prisoners.
71 And he accepted it willingly, and did according to his words, and swore that he would do him no harm all the days of his life. 72 And he restored to him the prisoners which he before had taken out of the land of Juda: and he returned and went away into his own country, and he came no more into their borders. 73 So the sword ceased from Israel: and Jonathan dwelt in Machmas, and Jonathan began there to judge the people, and he destroyed the wicked out of Israel.
Alexander Bales sets himself up for king: both he and Demetrius seek to make Jonathan their friend. Alexander kills Demetrius in battle, and honours Jonathan. His victory over Apollonius.
1 Now in the hundred and sixtieth year Alexander the son of Antiochus, surnamed the Illustrious, came up and took Ptolemais, and they received him, and he reigned there. 2 And king Demetrius heard of it, and gathered together an exceeding great army, and went forth against him to fight. 3 And Demetrius sent a letter to Jonathan with peaceable words, to magnify him. 4 For he said: Let us first make a peace with him, before he make one with Alexander against us. 5 For he will remember all the evils that we have done against him, and against his brother, and against his nation.
6 And he gave him authority to gather together an army, and to make arms, and that he should be his confederate: and the hostages that were in the castle, he commanded to be delivered to him. 7 And Jonathan came to Jerusalem, and read the letters in the hearing of all the people, and of them that were in the castle. 8 And they were struck with great fear, because they heard that the king had given him authority to gather together an army. 9 And the hostages were delivered to Jonathan, and he restored them to their parents. 10 And Jonathan dwelt in Jerusalem, and began to build, and to repair the city.
11 And he ordered workmen to build the walls, and mount Sion round about with square stones for fortification: and so they did. 12 And the strangers that were in the strong holds, which Bacchides had built, fled away. 13 And every man left his place, and departed into his own country: 14 Only in Bethsura there remained some of them, that had forsaken the law, and the commandments of God: for this was a place of refuge for them. 15 And king Alexander heard of the promises that Demetrius had made Jonathan: and they told him of the battles, and the worthy acts that he, and his brethren had done, and the labours that they had endured.
16 And he said: Shall we find such another man? now therefore we will make him our friend and our confederate. 17 So he wrote a letter, and sent it to him according to these words, saying: 18 King Alexander to his brother Jonathan, greeting. 19 We have heard of thee, that thou art a man of great power, and fit to be our friend: 20 Now therefore we make thee this day high priest of thy nation, and that thou be called the king's friend, (and he sent him a purple robe, and a crown of gold,) and that thou be of one mind with us in our affairs, and keep friendship with us.
21 Then Jonathan put on the holy vestment in the seventh month, in the year one hundred and threescore, at the feast day of the tabernacles: and he gathered together an army, and made a great number of arms. 22 And Demetrius heard these words, and was exceeding sorry, and said: 23 What is this that we have done, that Alexander hath prevented us to gain the friendship of the Jews to strengthen himself? 24 I also will write to them words of request, and offer dignities, and gifts: that they may be with me to aid me. 25 And he wrote to them in these words: King Demetrius to the nation of the Jews, greeting.
26 Whereas you have kept covenant with us, and have continued in our friendship, and have not joined with our enemies, we have heard of it, and are glad. 27 Wherefore now continue still to keep fidelity towards us, and we will reward you with good things, for what you have done in our behalf. 28 And we will remit to you many charges, and will give you gifts. 29 And now I free you, and all the Jews from tributes, and I release you from the customs of salt, and remit the crowns, and the thirds of the seed: 30 And the half of the fruit of trees, which is my share, I leave to you from this day forward, so that it shall not be taken of the land of Juda, and of the three cities that are added thereto out of Samaria and Galilee, from this day forth and for ever:
31 And let Jerusalem be holy and free, with the borders thereof: and let the tenths, and tributes be for itself. 32 I yield up also the power of the castle that is in Jerusalem, and I give it to the high priest, to place therein such men as he shall choose to keep it. 33 And every soul of the Jews that hath been carried captive from the land of Juda in all my kingdom, I set at liberty freely, that all be discharged from tributes even of their cattle. 34 And I will that all the feasts, and the sabbaths, and the new moons, and the days appointed, and three days before the solemn day, and three days after the solemn day, be all days of immunity and freedom, for all the Jews that are in my kingdom: 35 And no man shall have power to do any thing against them, or to molest any of them, in any cause.
36 And let there be enrolled in the king's army to the number of thirty thousand of the Jews: and allowance shall be made them as is due to all the king's forces, and certain of them shall be appointed to be in the fortresses of the great king: 37 And some of them shall be set over the affairs of the kingdom, that are of trust, and let the governors be taken from among themselves, and let them walk in their own laws, as the king hath commanded in the land of Juda. 38 And the three cities that are added to Judea, out of the country of Samaria, let them be accounted with Judea: that they may be under one, and obey no other authority but that of the high priest: 39 Ptolemais, and the confines thereof, I give as a free gift to the holy places, that are in Jerusalem, for the necessary charges of the holy things. 40 And I give every year fifteen thousand sicles of silver out of the king's accounts, of what belongs to me:
41 And all that is above, which they that were over the affairs the years before, had not paid, from this time they shall give it to the works of the house. 42 Moreover the five thousand sicles of silver which they received from the account of the holy places, every year, shall also belong to the priests that execute the ministry. 43 And whosoever shall flee into the temple that is in Jerusalem, and in all the borders thereof, being indebted to the king for any matter, let them be set at liberty, and all that they have in my kingdom, let them have it free. 44 For the building also, or repairing the works of the holy places, the charges shall be given out of the king's revenues: 45 For the building also of the walls of Jerusalem, and the fortifying thereof round about, the charges shall be given out of the king's account, as also for the building of the walls in Judea.
46 Now when Jonathan, and the people heard these words, they gave no credit to them nor received them: because they remembered the great evil that he had done in Israel, for he had afflicted them exceedingly. 47 And their inclinations were towards Alexander, because he had been the chief promoter of peace in their regard, and him they always helped. 48 And king Alexander gathered together a great army, and moved his camp near to Demetrius. 49 And the two kings joined battle, and the army of Demetrius fled away, and Alexander pursued after him, and pressed them close. 50 And the battle was hard fought till the sun went down: and Demetrius was slain that day.
51 And Alexander sent ambassadors to Ptolemee king of Egypt, with words to this effect, saying: 52 Forasmuch as I am returned into my kingdom, and am set in the throne of my ancestors and have gotten the dominion, and have overthrown Demetrius, and possessed our country, 53 And have joined battle with him, and both he and his army have been destroyed by us, and we are placed in the throne of his kingdom: 54 Now therefore let us make friendship one with another: and give me now thy daughter to wife, and I will be thy son in law, and I will give both thee and her gifts worthy of thee. 55 And king Ptolemee answered, saying: Happy is the day wherein thou didst return to the land of thy fathers, and sattest in the throne of their kingdom.
51 "Ptolemee"... Surnamed Philometer.
56 And now I will do to thee as thou hast written: but meet me at Ptolemais, that we may see one another, and I may give her to thee as thou hast said. 57 So Ptolemee went out of Egypt, with Cleopatra his daughter, and he came to Ptolemais in the hundred and sixty-second year. 58 And king Alexander met him, and he gave him his daughter Cleopatra: and he celebrated her marriage at Ptolemais, with great glory, after the manner of kings. 59 And king Alexander wrote to Jonathan, that he should come and meet him. 60 And he went honourably to Ptolemais, and he met there the two kings, and he gave them much silver, and gold, and presents: and he found favour in their sight.
61 And some pestilent men of Israel, men of a wicked life, assembled themselves against him to accuse him: and the king gave no heed to them. 62 And he commanded that Jonathan's garments should be taken off, and that he should be clothed with purple: and they did so. And the king made him sit by himself. 63 And he said to his princes: Go out with him into the midst of the city, and make proclamation, that no man complain against him of any matter, and that no man trouble him for any manner of cause. 64 So when his accusers saw his glory proclaimed, and him clothed with purple, they all fled away. 65 And the king magnified him, and enrolled him amongst his chief friends, and made him governor and partaker of his dominion.
66 And Jonathan returned into Jerusalem with peace and joy. 67 In the year one hundred and sixty-five Demetrius the son of Demetrius came from Crete into the land of his fathers. 68 And king Alexander heard of it, and was much troubled, and returned to Antioch. 69 And king Demetrius made Apollonius his general, who was governor of Celesyria: and he gathered together a great army, and came to Jamnia: and he sent to Jonathan the high priest, 70 Saying: Thou alone standest against us, and I am laughed at, and reproached, because thou shewest thy power against us in the mountains.
71 Now therefore if thou trustest in thy forces, come down to us into the plain, and there let us try one another: for with me is the strength of war. 72 Ask, and learn who I am, and the rest that help me, who also say that your foot cannot stand before our face, for thy fathers have twice been put to flight in their own land: 73 And now how wilt thou be able to abide the horsemen, and so great an army in the plain, where there is no stone, nor rock, nor place to flee to? 74 Now when Jonathan heard the words of Apollonius, he was moved in his mind: and he chose ten thousand men, and went out of Jerusalem, and Simon his brother met him to help him. 75 And they pitched their tents near Joppe, but they shut him out of the city: because a garrison of Apollonius was in Joppe, and he laid siege to it.
76 And they that were in the city being affrighted, opened the gates to him: so Jonathan took Joppe. 77 And Apollonius heard of it, and he took three thousand horsemen, and a great army. 78 And he went to Azotus as one that was making a journey, and immediately he went forth into the plain: because he had a great number of horsemen, and he trusted in them. And Jonathan followed after him to Azotus, and they joined battle. 79 And Apollonius left privately in the camp a thousand horsemen behind them. 80 And Jonathan knew that there was an ambush behind him, and they surrounded his army, and cast darts at the people from morning till evening.
81 But the people stood still, as Jonathan had commanded them: and so their horses were fatigued. 82 Then Simon drew forth his army, and attacked the legion: for the horsemen were wearied: and they were discomfited by him, and fled. 83 And they that were scattered about the plain, fled into Azotus, and went into Bethdagon their idol's temple, there to save themselves. 84 But Jonathan set fire to Azotus, and the cities that were around it, and took the spoils of them, and the temple of Dagon: and all them that were fled into it, he burnt with fire. 85 So they that were slain by the sword, with them that were burnt, were almost eight thousand men.
86 And Jonathan removed his army from thence, and camped against Ascalon: and they went out of the city to meet him with great honour. 87 And Jonathan returned into Jerusalem with his people, having many spoils. 88 And it came to pass: When Alexander the king heard these words, that he honoured Jonathan yet more. 89 And he sent him a buckle of gold, as the custom is, to be given to such as are of the royal blood. And he gave him Accaron and all the borders thereof in possession.
Ptolemee invades the kingdom of Alexander: the latter is slain: and the former dies soon after. Demetrius honours Jonathan, and is rescued by the Jews from his own subjects in Antioch. Antiochus the younger favours Jonathan. His exploits in divers places.
1 And the king of Egypt gathered together an army, like the sand that lieth upon the sea shore, and many ships: and he sought to get the kingdom of Alexander by deceit, and join it to his own kingdom. 2 And he went out into Syria with peaceable words, and they opened to him the cities, and met him: for king Alexander had ordered them to go forth to meet him, because he was his father in law. 3 Now when Ptolemee entered into the cities, he put garrisons of soldiers in every city. 4 And when he came near to Azotus, they shewed him the temple of Dagon that was burnt with fire, and Azotus, and the suburbs thereof that were destroyed, and the bodies that were cast abroad, and the graves of them that were slain in the battle, which they had made near the way. 5 And they told the king that Jonathan had done these things, to make him odious: but the king held his peace.
6 And Jonathan came to meet the king at Joppe with glory, and they saluted one another, and they lodged there. 7 And Jonathan went with the king as far as the river, called Eleutherus: and he returned into Jerusalem. 8 And king Ptolemee got the dominion of the cities by the sea side, even to Seleucia, and he devised evil designs against Alexander. 9 And he sent ambassadors to Demetrius, saying: Come, let us make a league between us, and I will give thee my daughter whom Alexander hath, and thou shalt reign in the kingdom of thy father. 10 For I repent that I have given him my daughter: for he hath sought to kill me.
11 And he slandered him, because he coveted his kingdom. 12 And he took away his daughter, and gave her to Demetrius, and alienated himself from Alexander, and his enmities were made manifest. 13 And Ptolemee entered into Antioch, and set two crowns upon his head, that of Egypt, and that of Asia. 14 Now king Alexander was in Cilicia at that time: because they that were in those places had rebelled. 15 And when Alexander heard of it, he came to give him battle, and king Ptolemee brought forth his army, and met him with a strong power, and put him to flight.
16 And Alexander fled into Arabia, there to be protected: and king Ptolemee was exalted. 17 And Zabdiel the Arabian took off Alexander's head, and sent it to Ptolemee. 18 And king Ptolemee died the third day after: and they that were in the strong holds were destroyed by them that were within the camp. 19 And Demetrius reigned in the hundred and sixty-seventh year. 20 In those days Jonathan gathered together them that were in Judea, to take the castle that was in Jerusalem: and they made many engines of war against it.
21 Then some wicked men that hated their own nation, went away to king Demetrius, and told him that Jonathan was besieging the castle. 22 And when he heard it, he was angry: and forthwith he came to Ptolemais, and wrote to Jonathan, that he should not besiege the castle, but should come to him in haste, and speak to him. 23 But when Jonathan heard this, he bade them besiege it still: and he chose some of the ancients of Israel, and of the priests, and put himself in danger. 24 And he took gold, and silver, and raiment, and many other presents, and went to the king to Ptolemais, and he found favour in his sight. 25 And certain wicked men of his nation made complaints against him.
26 And the king treated him as his predecessor had done before: and he exalted him in the sight of all his friends. 27 And he confirmed him in the high priesthood, and all the honours he had before, and he made him the chief of his friends. 28 And Jonathan requested of the king that he would make Judea free from tribute, and the three governments, and Samaria, and the confines thereof: and he promised him three hundred talents. 29 And the king consented: and he wrote letters to Jonathan of all these things to this effect. 30 King Demetrius to his brother Jonathan, and to the nation of the Jews, greeting.
31 We send you here a copy of the letter, which we have written to Lasthenes our parent concerning you, that you might know it. 32 King Demetrius to Lasthenes his parent, greeting. 33 We have determined to do good to the nation of the Jews who are our friends, and keep the things that are just with us, for their good will which they bear towards us. 34 We have ratified therefore unto them all the borders of Judea, and the three cities, Apherema, Lydda, and Ramatha, which are added to Judea, out of Samaria, and all their confines, to be set apart to all them that sacrifice in Jerusalem, instead of the payments which the king received of them every year, and for the fruits of the land, and of the trees. 35 And as for other things that belonged to us of the tithes, and of the tributes, from this time we discharge them of them: the saltpans also, and the crowns that were presented to us.
34 "Apherema"... is found only in the Greek version.
36 We give all to them, and nothing hereof shall be revoked from this time forth and for ever. 37 Now therefore see that thou make a copy of these things, and let it be given to Jonathan, and set upon the holy mountain, in a conspicuous place. 38 And king Demetrius seeing that the land was quiet before him, and nothing resisted him, sent away all his forces, every man to his own place, except the foreign army, which he had drawn together from the islands of the nations: so all the troops of his fathers hated him. 39 Now there was one Tryphon who had been of Alexander's party before: who seeing that all the army murmured against Demetrius, went to Emalchuel the Arabian, who brought up Antiochus the son of Alexander. 40 And he pressed him much to deliver him to him, that he might be king in his father's place: and he told him all that Demetrius had done, and how his soldiers hated him. And he remained there many days.
41 And Jonathan sent to king Demetrius, desiring that he would cast out them that were in the castle in Jerusalem, and those that were in the strong holds: because they fought against Israel. 42 And Demetrius sent to Jonathan, saying: I will not only do this for thee, and for thy people, but I will greatly honour thee, and thy nation, when opportunity shall serve. 43 Now therefore thou shalt do well if thou send me men to help me: for all my army is gone from me. 44 And Jonathan sent him three thousand valiant men to Antioch: and they came to the king, and the king was very glad of their coming. 45 And they that were of the city assembled themselves together, to the number of a hundred and twenty thousand men, and would have killed the king.
46 And the king fled into the palace, and they of the city kept the passages of the city, and began to fight. 47 And the king called the Jews to his assistance: and they came to him all at once, and they all dispersed themselves through the city. 48 And they slew in that day a hundred thousand men, and they set fire to the city, and got many spoils that day, and delivered the king. 49 And they that were of the city saw that the Jews had got the city as they would: and they were discouraged in their minds, and cried to the king, making supplication, and saying: 50 Grant us peace, and let the Jews cease from assaulting us, and the city.
51 And they threw down their arms, and made peace, and the Jews were glorified in the sight of the king, and in the sight of all that were in his realm, and were renowned throughout the kingdom, and returned to Jerusalem with many spoils. 52 So king Demetrius sat in the throne of his kingdom: and the land was quiet before him. 53 And he falsified all whatsoever he had said, and alienated himself from Jonathan, and did not reward him according to the benefits he had received from him, but gave him great trouble. 54 And after this Tryphon returned, and with him Antiochus the young boy, who was made king, and put on the diadem. 55 And there assembled unto him all the hands which Demetrius had sent away, and they fought against Demetrius, who turned his back and fled.
56 And Tryphon took the elephants, and made himself master of Antioch. 57 And young Antiochus wrote to Jonathan, saying: I confirm thee in the high priesthood, and I appoint thee ruler over the four cities, and to be one of the king's friends. 58 And he sent him vessels of gold for his service, and he gave him leave to drink in gold, and to be clothed in purple, and to wear a golden buckle: 59 And he made his brother Simon governor from the borders of Tyre even to the confines of Egypt. 60 Then Jonathan went forth and passed through the cities beyond the river: and all the forces of Syria gathered themselves to him to help him, and he came to Ascalon, and they met him honourably out of the city.
61 And he went from thence to Gaza: and they that were in Gaza shut him out: and he besieged it, and burnt all the suburbs round about, and took the spoils. 62 And the men of Gaza made supplication to Jonathan, and he gave them the right hand: and he took their sons for hostages, and sent them to Jerusalem: and he went through the country as far as Damascus. 63 And Jonathan heard that the generals of Demetrius were come treacherously to Cades, which is in Galilee, with a great army, purposing to remove him from the affairs of the kingdom: 64 And he went against them: but left his brother Simon in the country. 65 And Simon encamped against Bethsura, and assaulted it many days, and shut them up.
66 And they desired him to make peace, and he granted it them: and he cast them out from thence, and took the city, and placed a garrison in it. 67 And Jonathan, and his army encamped by the water of Genesar, and before it was light they were ready in the plain of Asor. 68 And behold the army of the strangers met him in the plain, and they laid an ambush for him in the mountains: but he went out against them. 69 And they that lay in ambush arose out of their places, and joined battle. 70 And all that were on Jonathan's side fled, and none was left of them, but Mathathias the son of Absalom, and Judas the son of Calphi, chief captain of the army.
71 And Jonathan rent his garments, and cast earth upon his head, and prayed. 72 And Jonathan turned again to them to battle, and he put them to flight, and they fought. 73 And they of his part that fled saw this, and they turned again to him, and they all with him pursued the enemies even to Cades to their own camp, and they came even thither. 74 And there fell of the aliens in that day three thousand men: and Jonathan returned to Jerusalem.
Jonathan renews his league with the Romans and Lacedemonians. The forces of Demetrius flee away from him. He is deceived and made prisoner by Tryphon.
1 And Jonathan saw that the time served him, and he chose certain men and sent them to Rome, to confirm and to renew the amity with them: 2 And he sent letters to the Spartans, and to other places according to the same form. 3 And they went to Rome, and entered into the senate house, and said: Jonathan the high priest, and the nation of the Jews have sent us to renew the amity, and alliance as it was before. 4 And they gave them letters to their governors in every place, to conduct them into the land of Juda with peace. 5 And this is a copy of the letters which Jonathan wrote to the Spartans:
6 Jonathan the high priest, and the ancients of the nation, and the priests, and the rest of the people of the Jews, to the Spartans, their brethren, greeting. 7 There were letters sent long ago to Onias the high priest from Arius who reigned then among you, to signify that you are our brethren, as the copy here underwritten doth specify. 8 And Onias received the ambassador with honour: and received the letters wherein there was mention made of the alliance, and amity. 9 We, though we needed none of these things, having for our comfort the holy books that are in our hands, 10 Chose rather to send to you to renew the brotherhood and friendship, lest we should become strangers to you altogether: for there is a long time passed since you sent to us.
11 We therefore at all times without ceasing, both in our festivals, and other days, wherein it is convenient, remember you in the sacrifices that we offer, and in our observances, as it is meet, and becoming to remember brethren. 12 And we rejoice at your glory. 13 But we have had many troubles and wars on every side, and the kings that are round about us, have fought against us. 14 But we would not be troublesome to you, nor the rest of our allies and friends in these wars. 15 For we have had help from heaven, and we have been delivered, and our enemies are humbled.
16 We have chosen therefore Numenius the son of Antiochus, and Antipater the son of Jason, and have sent them to the Romans to renew with them the former amity and alliance. 17 And we have commanded them to go also to you, and to salute you, and to deliver you our letters, concerning the renewing of our brotherhood. 18 And now you shall do well to give us an answer hereto. 19 And this is the copy of the letter which he had sent to Onias: 20 Arius king of the Spartans to Onias the high priest, greeting.
21 It is found in writing concerning the Spartans, and the Jews, that they are brethren, and that they are of the stock of Abraham. 22 And now since this is come to our knowledge, you do well to write to us of your prosperity. 23 And we also have written back to you: That our cattle, and our possessions are yours: and yours, ours. We therefore have commanded that these things should be told you. 24 Now Jonathan heard that the generals of Demetrius were come again with a greater army than before to fight against him. 25 So he went out from Jerusalem, and met them in the land of Amath: for he gave them no time to enter into his country.
26 And he sent spies into their camp, and they came back and brought him word that they designed to come upon them in the night. 27 And when the sun was set, Jonathan commanded his men to watch, and to be in arms all night long ready to fight, and he set sentinels round about the camp. 28 And the enemies heard that Jonathan and his men were ready for battle, and they were struck with fear, and dread in their heart: and they kindled fires in their camp. 29 But Jonathan and they that were with him knew it not till the morning: for they saw the lights burning. 30 And Jonathan pursued after them, but overtook them not: for they had passed the river Eleutherus.
31 And Jonathan turned upon the Arabians that are called Zabadeans: and he defeated them, and took the spoils of them. 32 And he went forward, and came to Damascus, and passed through all that country. 33 Simon also went forth, and came as far as Ascalon, and the neighbouring fortresses, and he turned aside to Joppe, and took possession of it, 34 (For he heard that they designed to deliver the hold to them that took part with Demetrius,) and he put a garrison there to keep it. 35 And Jonathan came back, and called together the ancients of the people, and he took a resolution with them to build fortresses in Judea,
36 And to build up walls in Jerusalem, and raise a mount between the castle and the city, to separate it from the city, that so it might have no communication, and that they might neither buy nor sell. 37 And they came together to build up the city: for the wall that was upon the brook towards the east was broken down, and he repaired that which is called Caphetetha: 38 And Simon built Adiada in Sephela, and fortified it, and set up gates and bars. 39 Now when Tryphon had conceived a design to make himself king of Asia, and to take the crown, and to stretch out his hand against king Antiochus: 40 Fearing lest Jonathan would not suffer him, but would fight against him: he sought to seize upon him, and to kill him. So he rose up and came to Bethsan.
41 And Jonathan went out to meet him with forty thousand men chosen for battle, and came to Bethsan. 42 Now when Tryphon saw that Jonathan came with a great army, he durst not stretch forth his hand against him, 43 But received him with honour, and commended him to all his friends, and gave him presents: and he commanded his troops to obey him, as himself. 44 And he said to Jonathan: Why hast thou troubled all the people, whereas we have no war? 45 Now therefore send them back to their own houses: and choose thee a few men that may be with thee, and come with me to Ptolemais, and I will deliver it to thee, and the rest of the strong holds, and the army, and all that have any charge, and I will return and go away: for this is the cause of my coming.
46 And Jonathan believed him, and did as he said: and sent away his army, and they departed into the land of Juda: 47 But he kept with him three thousand men: of whom he sent two thousand into Galilee, and one thousand went with him. 48 Now as soon as Jonathan entered into Ptolemais, they of Ptolemais shut the gates of the city, and took him: and all them that came in with him they slew with the sword. 49 Then Tryphon sent an army and horsemen into Galilee, and into the great plain to destroy all Jonathan's company. 50 But they, when they understood that Jonathan and all that were with him were taken and slain, encouraged one another, and went out ready for battle.
51 Then they that had come after them, seeing that they stood for their lives, returned back. 52 Whereupon they all came peaceably into the land of Juda. And they bewailed Jonathan, and them that had been with him, exceedingly: and Israel mourned with great lamentation. 53 Then all the heathens that were round about them, sought to destroy them. For they said: 54 They have no prince, nor any to help them: now therefore let us make war upon them, and take away the memory of them from amongst men.
Simon is made captain general in the room of his brother. Jonathan is slain by Tryphon. Simon is favoured by Demetrius: he taketh Gaza, and the castle of Jerusalem.
1 Now Simon heard that Tryphon was gathering together a very great army, to invade the land of Juda, and to destroy it. 2 And seeing that the people was in dread, and in fear, he went up to Jerusalem, and assembled the people: 3 And exhorted them, saying: You know what great battles I and my brethren, and the house of my father, have fought for the laws, and the sanctuary, and the distresses that we have seen: 4 By reason whereof all my brethren have lost their lives for Israel's sake, and I am left alone. 5 And now far be it from me to spare my life in any time of trouble: for I am not better than my brethren.
6 I will avenge then my nation and the sanctuary, and our children, and wives: for all the heathens are gathered together to destroy us out of mere malice. 7 And the spirit of the people was enkindled as soon as they heard these words. 8 And they answered with a loud voice, saying: Thou art our leader in the place of Judas, and Jonathan thy brother. 9 Fight thou our battles, and we will do whatsoever thou shalt say to us. 10 So gathering together all the men of war, he made haste to finish all the walls of Jerusalem, and he fortified it round about.
11 And he sent Jonathan the son of Absalom, and with him a new army into Joppe, and he cast out them that were in it, and himself remained there. 12 And Tryphon removed from Ptolemais with a great army, to invade the land of Juda, and Jonathan was with him in custody. 13 But Simon pitched in Addus, over against the plain. 14 And when Tryphon understood that Simon was risen up in the place of his brother Jonathan, and that he meant to join battle with him, he sent messengers to him, 15 Saying: We have detained thy brother Jonathan for the money that he owed in the king's account, by reason of the affairs which he had the management of.
16 But now send a hundred talents of silver, and his two sons for hostages, that when he is set at liberty he may not revolt from us, and we will release him. 17 Now Simon knew that he spoke deceitfully to him, nevertheless he ordered the money, and the children to be sent: lest he should bring upon himself a great hatred of the people of Israel, who might have said: 18 Because he sent not the money, and the children, therefore is he lost. 19 So he sent the children, and the hundred talents: and he lied, and did not let Jonathan go. 20 And after this Tryphon entered within the country, to destroy it: and they went about by the way that leadeth to Ador: and Simon and his army marched to every place whithersoever they went.
20 "Whithersoever they went"... That is, whithersoever Tryphon and his horsemen went in order to oppose them.
21 And they that were in the castle, sent messengers to Tryphon, that he should make haste to come through the desert, and send them victuals. 22 And Tryphon made ready all his horsemen to come that night: but there fell a very great snow, and he came not into the country of Galaad. 23 And when he approached to Bascama, he slew Jonathan and his sons there. 24 And Tryphon returned, and went into his own country. 25 And Simon sent, and took the bones of Jonathan his brother, and buried them in Modin, in the city of his fathers.
26 And all Israel bewailed him with great lamentation: and they mourned for him many days. 27 And Simon built over the sepulchre of his father and of his brethren, a building lofty to the sight, of polished stone behind and before: 28 And he set up seven pyramids one against another for his father and his mother, and his four brethren: 29 And round about these he set great pillars: and upon the pillars arms for a perpetual memory: and by the arms ships carved, which might be seen by all that sailed on the sea. 30 This is the sepulchre that he made in Modin even unto this day.
31 But Tryphon when he was upon a journey with the young king Antiochus, treacherously slew him. 32 And he reigned in his place, and put on the crown of Asia: and brought great evils upon the land. 33 And Simon built up the strong holds of Judea, fortifying them with high towers, and great walls, and gates, and bars: and he stored up victuals in the fortresses. 34 And Simon chose men and sent to king Demetrius, to the end that he should grant an immunity to the land: for all that Tryphon did was to spoil. 35 And king Demetrius in answer to this request, wrote a letter in this manner:
36 King Demetrius to Simon the high priest, and friend of kings, and to the ancients, and to the nation of the Jews, greeting. 37 The golden crown, and the palm, which you sent, we have received: and we are ready to make a firm peace with you, and to write to the king's chief officers to release you the things that we have released. 38 For all that we have decreed in your favour, shall stand in force. The strong holds that you have built, shall be your own. 39 And as for any oversight or fault committed unto this day, we forgive it, and the crown which you owed: and if any other thing were taxed in Jerusalem, now let it not be taxed. 40 And if any of you be fit to be enrolled among ours, let them be enrolled, and let there be peace between us.
41 In the year one hundred and seventy the yoke of the Gentiles was taken off from Israel. 42 And the people of Israel began to write in the instruments, and public records, The first year under Simon the high priest, the great captain and prince of the Jews. 43 In those days Simon besieged Gaza, and camped round about it, and he made engines, and set them to the city, and he struck one tower, and took it. 44 And they that were within the engine leaped into the city: and there was a great uproar in the city. 45 And they that were in the city went up with their wives and children upon the wall, with their garments rent, and they cried with a loud voice, beseeching Simon to grant them peace.
46 And they said: Deal not with us according to our evil deeds, but according to thy mercy. 47 And Simon being moved, did not destroy them: but yet he cast them out of the city, and cleansed the houses wherein there had been idols, and then he entered into it with hymns, blessing the Lord. 48 And having cast out of it all uncleanness, he placed in it men that should observe the law: and he fortified it, and made it his habitation. 49 But they that were in the castle of Jerusalem were hindered from going out and coming into the country, and from buying and selling: and they were straitened with hunger, and many of them perished through famine. 50 And they cried to Simon for peace, and he granted it to them: and he cast them out from thence, and cleansed the castle from uncleannesses.
51 And they entered into it the three and twentieth day of the second month, in the year one hundred and seventy-one, with thanksgiving, and branches of palm trees, and harps, and cymbals, and psalteries, and hymns, and canticles, because the great enemy was destroyed out of Israel. 52 And he ordained that these days should be kept every year with gladness. 53 And he fortified the mountain of the temple that was near the castle, and he dwelt there himself, and they that were with him. 54 And Simon saw that John his son was a valiant man for war: and he made him captain of all the forces: and he dwelt in Gazara.
Demetrius is taken by the king of Persia. Judea flourishes under the government of Simon.
1 In the year one hundred and seventy-two, king Demetrius assembled his army, and went into Media to get him succours to fight against Tryphon. 2 And Arsaces the king of Persia and Media heard that Demetrius was entered within his borders, and he sent one of his princes to take him alive, and bring him to him. 3 And he went and defeated the army of Demetrius: and took him, and brought him to Arsaces, and he put him into custody. 4 And all the land of Juda was at rest all the days of Simon, and he sought the good of his nation: and his power, and his glory pleased them well all his days. 5 And with all his glory he took Joppe for a haven, and made an entrance to the isles of the sea.
6 And he enlarged the bounds of his nation, and made himself master of the country. 7 And he gathered together a great number of captives, and had the dominion of Gazara, and of Bethsura, and of the castle: and took away all uncleanness out of it and there was none that resisted him. 8 And every man tilled his land with peace: and the land of Juda yielded her increase, and the trees of the fields their fruit. 9 The ancient men sat all in the streets, and treated together of the good things of the land, and the young men put on them glory, and the robes of war. 10 And he provided victuals for the cities, and he appointed that they should be furnished with ammunition, so that the fame of his glory was renowned even to the end of the earth.
11 He made peace in the land, and Israel rejoiced with great joy. 12 And every man sat under his vine, and under his fig tree: and there was none to make them afraid. 13 There was none left in the land to fight against them: kings were discomfited in those days. 14 And he strengthened all those of his people that were brought low, and he sought the law, and took away every unjust and wicked man. 15 He glorified the sanctuary, and multiplied the vessels of the holy places.
16 And it was heard at Rome, and as far as Sparta, that Jonathan was dead: and they were very sorry. 17 But when they heard that Simon his brother was made high priest in his place, and was possessed of all the country, and the cities therein: 18 They wrote to him in tables of brass, to renew the friendship and alliance which they had made with Judas, and with Jonathan his brethren. 19 And they were read before the assembly in Jerusalem. And this is the copy of the letters that the Spartans sent. 20 The princes and the cities of the Spartans to Simon the high priest, and to the ancients, and the priests, and the rest of the people of the Jews their brethren, greeting.
21 The ambassadors that were sent to our people, have told us of your glory, and honour, and joy: and we rejoice at their coming. 22 And we registered what was said by them in the councils of the people in this manner: Numenius the son of Antiochus, and Antipater the son of Jason, ambassadors of the Jews, came to us to renew the former friendship with us. 23 And it pleased the people to receive the men honourably, and to put a copy of their words in the public records, to be a memorial to the people of the Spartans. And we have written a copy of them to Simon the high priest. 24 And after this Simon sent Numenius to Rome, with a great shield of gold the weight of a thousand pounds, to confirm the league with them. And when the people of Rome had heard 25 These words, they said: What thanks shall we give to Simon, and his sons?
26 For he hath restored his brethren, and hath driven away in fight the enemies of Israel from them: and they decreed him liberty, and registered it in tables of brass, and set it upon pillars in mount Sion. 27 And this is a copy of the writing: The eighteenth day of the month Elul, in the year one hundred and seventy-two, being the third year under Simon the high priest at Asaramel, 28 In a great assembly of the priests, and of the people, and the princes of the nation, and the ancients of the country, these things were notified: Forasmuch as there have often been wars in our country, 29 And Simon the son of Mathathias of the children of Jarib, and his brethren have put themselves in danger, and have resisted the enemies of their nation, for the maintenance of their holy places, and the law: and have raised their nation to great glory. 30 And Jonathan gathered together his nation, and was made their high priest, and he was laid to his people.
31 And their enemies desired to tread down and destroy their country, and to stretch forth their hands against their holy places. 32 Then Simon resisted and fought for his nation, and laid out much of his money, and armed the valiant men of his nation, and gave them wages: 33 And he fortified the cities of Judea, and Bethsura that lieth in the borders of Judea, where the armour of the enemies was before: and he placed there a garrison of Jews. 34 And he fortified Joppe which lieth by the sea: and Gazara, which bordereth upon Azotus, wherein the enemies dwelt before, and he placed Jews here: and furnished them with all things convenient for their reparation. 35 And the people seeing the acts of Simon, and to what glory he meant to bring his nation, made him their prince, and high priest, because he had done all these things, and for the justice, and faith, which he kept to his nation, and for that he sought by all means to advance his people.
36 And in his days things prospered in his hands, so that the heathens were taken away out of their country, and they also that were in the city of David in Jerusalem in the castle, out of which they issued forth, and profaned all places round about the sanctuary, and did much evil to its purity. 37 And he placed therein Jews for the defence of the country, and of the city, and he raised up the walls of Jerusalem. 38 And king Demetrius confirmed him in the high priesthood. 39 According to these things he made him his friend, and glorified him with great glory. 40 For he had heard that the Romans had called the Jews their friends, and confederates, and brethren, and that they had received Simon's ambassadors with honour:
41 And that the Jews, and their priests, had consented that he should be their prince, and high priest for ever, till there should arise a faithful prophet: 42 And that he should be chief over them, and that he should have the charge of the sanctuary, and that he should appoint rulers over their works, and over the country, and over the armour, and over the strong holds. 43 And that he should have care of the holy places: and that he should be obeyed by all, and that all the writings in the country should be made in his name: and that he should be clothed with purple, and gold: 44 And that it should not be lawful for any of the people, or of the priests, to disannul any of these things, or to gainsay his words, or to call together an assembly in the country without him: or to be clothed with purple, or to wear a buckle of gold: 45 And whosoever shall do otherwise, or shall make void any of these things shall be punished.
46 And it pleased all the people to establish Simon, and to do according to these words. 47 And Simon accepted thereof, and was well pleased to execute the office of the high priesthood, and to be captain, and prince of the nation of the Jews, and of the priests, and to be chief over all. 48 And they commanded that this writing should be put in tables of brass, and that they should be set up within the compass of the sanctuary, in a conspicuous place: 49 And that a copy thereof should be put in the treasury, that Simon and his sons may have it.
Antiochus son of Demetrius honours Simon. The Romans write to divers nations in favour of the Jews. Antiochus quarrels with Simon, and sends troops to annoy him.
1 And king Antiochus the son of Demetrius sent letters from the isles of the sea to Simon the priest, and prince of the nation of the Jews, and to all the people: 2 And the contents were these: King Antiochus to Simon the high priest, and to the nation of the Jews, greeting. 3 Forasmuch as certain pestilent men have usurped the kingdom of our fathers, and my purpose is to challenge the kingdom, and to restore it to its former estate: and I have chosen a great army, and have built ships of war. 4 And I design to go through the country that I may take revenge of them that have destroyed our country, and that have made many cities desolate in my realm. 5 Now therefore I confirm unto thee all the oblations which all the kings before me remitted to thee, and what other gifts soever they remitted to thee:
6 And I give thee leave to coin thy own money in thy country: 7 And let Jerusalem be holy and free, and all the armour that hath been made, and the fortresses which thou hast built, and which thou keepest in thy hands, let them remain to thee. 8 And all that is due to the king, and what should be the king's hereafter, from this present and for ever, is forgiven thee. 9 And when we shall have recovered our kingdom, we will glorify thee, and thy nation, and the temple with great glory, so that your glory shall be made manifest in all the earth. 10 In the year one hundred and seventy-four Antiochus entered into the land of his fathers, and all the forces assembled to him, so that few were left with Tryphon.
11 And king Antiochus pursued after him, and he fled along by the sea coast and came to Dora. 12 For he perceived that evils were gathered together upon him, and his troops had forsaken him. 13 And Antiochus camped above Dora with a hundred and twenty thousand men of war, and eight thousand horsemen: 14 And he invested the city, and the ships drew near by sea: and they annoyed the city by land, and by sea, and suffered none to come in, or to go out. 15 And Numenius, and they that had been with him, came from the city of Rome, having letters written to the kings, and countries, the contents whereof were these:
16 Lucius the consul of the Romans, to king Ptolemee, greeting. 17 The ambassadors of the Jews our friends came to us, to renew the former friendship and alliance, being sent from Simon the high priest, and the people of the Jews. 18 And they brought also a shield of gold of a thousand pounds. 19 It hath seemed good therefore to us to write to the kings, and countries, that they should do them no harm, nor fight against them, their cities, or countries: and that they should give no aid to them that fight against them. 20 And it hath seemed good to us to receive the shield of them.
16 "Ptolemee"... Surnamed Physeon, brother and successor to Philometer.
21 If therefore any pestilent men are fled out of their country to you, deliver them to Simon the high priest, that he may punish them according to their law. 22 These same things were written to king Demetrius, and to Attalus, and to Ariarathes, and to Arsaces, 23 And to all the countries; and to Lampsacus, and to the Spartans, and to Delus, and Myndus, and Sicyon, and Caria, and Samus, and Pamphylia, and Lycia, and Alicarnassus, and Cos, and Side, and Aradus, and Rhodes, and Phaselis, and Gortyna, and Gnidus, and Cyprus, and Cyrene. 24 And they wrote a copy thereof to Simon the high priest, and to the people of the Jews. 25 But king Antiochus moved his camp to Dora the second time, assaulting it continually, and making engines: and shut up Tryphon, that he could not go out.
22 "Attalus"... Attalus was king of Pergamus; Ariarathes was king of Cappadocia; and Arsaces was king of the Parthians.
26 And Simon sent to him two thousand chosen men to aid him, silver also, and gold, and abundance of furniture. 27 And he would not receive them, but broke all the covenant that he had made with him before, and alienated himself from him. 28 And he sent to him Athenobius one of his friends, to treat with him, saying: You hold Joppe, and Gazara, and the castle that is in Jerusalem, which are cities of my kingdom: 29 Their borders you have wasted, and you have made great havock in the land, and have got the dominion of many places in my kingdom. 30 Now therefore deliver up the cities that you have taken, and the tributes of the places whereof you have gotten the dominion without the borders of Judea.
31 But if not, give me for them five hundred talents of silver, and for the havock that you have made, and the tributes of the cities other five hundred talents: or else we will come and fight against you. 32 So Athenobius the king's friend came to Jerusalem, and saw the glory of Simon and his magnificence in gold, and silver, and his great equipage, and he was astonished, and told him the king's words. 33 And Simon answered him, and said to him: We have neither taken other men's land, neither do we hold that which is other men's: but the inheritance of our fathers, which was for some time unjustly possessed by our enemies. 34 But we having opportunity claim the inheritance of our fathers. 35 And as to thy complaints concerning Joppe and Gazara, they did great harm to the people, and to our country: yet for these we will give a hundred talents. And Athenobius answered him not a word:
36 But returning in a rage to the king, made report to him of these words, and of the glory of Simon, and of all that he had seen, and the king was exceeding angry. 37 And Tryphon fled away by ship to Orthosias. 38 And the king appointed Cendebeus captain of the sea coast, and gave him an army of footmen and horsemen. 39 And he commanded him to march with his army towards Judea: and he commanded him to build up Gedor, and to fortify the gates of the city, and to war against the people. But the king himself pursued after Tryphon. 40 And Cendebeus came to Jamnia, and began to provoke the people, and to ravage Judea, and to take the people prisoners, and to kill, and to build Gedor.
41 And he placed there horsemen, and an army: that they might issue forth, and make incursions upon the ways of Judea, as the king had commanded him.
The sons of Simon defeat the troops of Antiochus. Simon with two of his sons are treacherously murdered by Ptolemee his son in law.
1 Then John came up from Gazara, and told Simon his father what Cendebeus had done against their people. 2 And Simon called his two eldest sons, Judas and John, and said to them: I and my brethren, and my father's house, have fought against the enemies of Israel from our youth even to this day: and things have prospered so well in our hands that we have delivered Israel oftentimes. 3 And now I am old, but be you instead of me, and my brethren, and go out, and fight for our nation: and the help from heaven be with you. 4 Then he chose out of the country twenty thousand fighting men, and horsemen, and they went forth against Cendebeus: and they rested in Modin. 5 And they arose in the morning, and went into the plain: and behold a very great army of footmen and horsemen came against them, and there was a running river between them.
1 "John"... He was afterwards surnamed Hircanus, and succeeded his father in both his dignities of high priest and prince. He conquered the Edomites, and obliged them to a conformity with the Jews in religion; and destroyed the schismatical temple of the Samaritans.
6 And he and his people pitched their camp over against them, and he saw that the people were afraid to go over the river, so he went over first: then the men seeing him, passed over after him. 7 And he divided the people, and set the horsemen in the midst of the footmen: but the horsemen of the enemies were very numerous. 8 And they sounded the holy trumpets: and Cendebeus and his army were put to flight: and there fell many of them wounded, and the rest fled into the strong hold. 9 At that time Judas John's brother was wounded: but John pursued after them, till he came to Cedron, which he had built: 10 And they fled even to the towers that were in the fields of Azotus, and he burnt them with fire. And there fell of them two thousand men, and he returned into Judea in peace.
6 "He"... Viz., John.
9 "Cedron"... Otherwise called Gedon, the city that Cendebeus was fortifying.
11 Now Ptolemee the son of Abobus was appointed captain in the plain of Jericho, and he had abundance of silver and gold, 12 For he was son in law of the high priest. 13 And his heart was lifted up, and he designed to make himself master of the country, and he purposed treachery against Simon, and his sons, to destroy them. 14 Now Simon, as he was going through the cities that were in the country of Judea, and taking care for the good ordering of them, went down to Jericho, he and Mathathias and Judas his sons, in the year one hundred and seventy-seven, the eleventh month: the same is the month Sabath. 15 And the son of Abobus received them deceitfully into a little fortress, that is called Doch which he had built: and he made them a great feast, and hid men there.
16 And when Simon and his sons had drunk plentifully, Ptolemee and his men rose up and took their weapons, and entered into the banqueting place, and slew him, and his two sons, and some of his servants. 17 And he committed a great treachery in Israel, and rendered evil for good. 18 And Ptolemee wrote these things and sent to the king that he should send him an army to aid him, and he would deliver him the country, and their cities, and tributes. 19 And he sent others to Gazara to kill John: and to the tribunes he sent letters to come to him, and that he would give them silver, and gold, and gifts. 20 And he sent others to take Jerusalem, and the mountain of the temple.
21 Now one running before, told John in Gazara, that his father and his brethren were slain, and that he hath sent men to kill thee also. 22 But when he heard it he was exceedingly afraid: and he apprehended the men that came to kill him, and he put them to death: for he knew that they sought to take him away. 23 And as concerning the rest of the acts of John, and his wars, and the worthy deeds, which he bravely achieved, and the building of the walls, which he made, and the things that he did: 24 Behold these are written in the book of the days of his priesthood, from the time he was made high priest after his father.