WHY CATHOLIC TEACHING SHOWS US THAT MARY IS TO BE CONSIDERED CO-REDEMPTRIX OR CO-REDEEMER

People who are against the title Co-Redemptrix (such as the Dimonds) will admit that the actual meaning of it is not heretical, it’s the title of Co-Redemptrix that they believe is heretical even if the meaning of it is orthodox. Their position is that it’s heretical to believe she also redeemed mankind like how Christ did (and we agree that this is heretical). But their position is also that it’s heretical to even give Mary the title of Co-Redemptrix even if the meaning is orthodox (they believe it can only be interpreted the heretical way), they have acknowledged this in the debate video on this issue and in their articles, as we will see. Peter Dimond said:

“The position of Co-Redemptrix is not that Mary is in a category with the saints under the one Redeemer, and can be called co-redeemer in a sense just like St. Paul is said to help fill up the work of Redemption. No, the position of Co-Redemptrix is that Mary is in a unique category with Jesus as the Redeemer – a category which does not include St. Paul or any other saint. Therefore, one cannot try to substantiate the “Co-Redemptrix” position by appealing to how other saints participate in the work of Redemption under the one Redeemer. That’s illogical and fallacious.” (Mary is not the Co-Redeemer (Co-Redemptrix); cf. Why Catholic teaching shows us that Mary is not to be considered Co-Redemptrix or Co-Redeemer)

In the debate video, their opponent continually says that it depends on how one defines Co-Redemptrix that determines whether it is to be considered heretical or orthodox and he explains it several times, but Peter continues to treat the title of Co-Redemptrix to mean something that it does not mean, even after their opponent in the video explained the true meaning, and Peter even acknowledged it in the video but he still continued to treat the title Co-Redemptrix to mean something that it does not mean even after it was explained to him. Peter Dimond said:

Mary was integral to the events that led up to the redemption but Christ alone is the redeemer and he alone redeemed the world, and therefore the title Co-Redemptrix, is a false title. … there is no other reason to apply the term Co-Redemptrix to her unless you are promoting the idea that she played an integral role in the actual specific formal act of redemption.” (Mary is not the Co-Redeemer (video))

The correct meaning of the title Co-Redemptrix does not even mean the way that he obstinately interprets it to mean, but he claims that there is no reason to apply the term Co-Redemptrix to her unless you’re promoting it the heretical way! This is dishonesty to the max.

Peter Dimond, Is Our Lady the Co-Redeemer?: “These facts considered, it is contrary to Catholic Teaching to say that Mary is Co-Redemptrix. Certainly, it’s possible for people to express themselves erroneously on this topic in good faith before the specific dogmatic definitions above are presented to them. But once they have seen these dogmatic definitions [“Jesus Christ our Lord, who alone is our redeemer and Savior…” (Council of Trent, sess. xxv)] they must reject this idea; it is, strictly speaking, a heresy which contradicts the dogmatic teaching of Trent and Florence.”

First, when Peter himself has admitted that there is an orthodox and non-heretical view to the title of Co-Redemptrix or Co-Redeemer, then it is obviously illogical of him to conclude that it must be heretical to apply the non-heretical and orthodox term of Co-Redemptrix to Mary.

Second, Popes and Holy Scripture teaches infallibly that all men have sinned without mentioning any exceptions. That did not mean there were no exceptions, and it did not mean the popes believed Christ and Mary had sinned, only they saw no need to mention the exception in the infallible decree, because the exceptions were already mentioned elsewhere. The Bible is the primary infallible source of revelation and it teaches, “all men have sinned” without mentioning the two exceptions of Jesus and Mary.

“Wherefore as by one man sin entered into this world and by sin death: and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned.” (Rom. 5:12)

This must me taken in context. It is not meant to include Jesus and Mary although it does not mention them as exceptions. Other sources of revelation have to be looked at, either other places in the Bible or the oral traditions of the original apostles. We see the same thing in the Council of Trent.

Council of Trent, On Original Sin, sess. V: “2. If any one asserts, that the prevarication of Adam injured himself alone, and not his posterity; and that the holiness and justice, received of God, which he lost, he lost for himself alone, and not for us also; or that he, being defiled by the sin of disobedience, has only transfused death, and pains of the body, into the whole human race, but not sin also, which is the death of the soul; let him be anathema:--whereas he contradicts the apostle who says; By one man sin entered into the world, and by sin death, and so death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned. [Rom. 5:12]” (D. 789)

The exception was not mentioned at all in this paragraph. In a different paragraph within the same decree later on there is mention that Mary is not included in this decree. But the exception of Jesus Christ is not mentioned at all. This same above decree is found word for word in the Council of Orange II, 529, Original Sin, Grace, Predestination, and it never mentions any exceptions.

Council of Orange, Canon 2 (A.D. 529): “If anyone asserts that Adam’s sin affected him alone and not his descendants also, or at least if he declares that it is only the death of the body which is the punishment for sin, and not also that sin, which is the death of the soul, passed through one man to the whole human race, he does injustice to God and contradicts the Apostle, who says, “Therefore as sin came into the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all men sinned” (Rom. 5:12).”

Pope Boniface II confirmed the Council of Orange. Footnote 1, Denzinger 175: “Orange in Gaul. This Council approved by Boniface II [See D. n. 200 a. f.] obtained such authority in the Church that it is worthily held as an infallible rule.” (D. 175) As a side note this is a Regional Council that was made infallible by a pope.

The Catholic Encyclopedia explains: “The acts of the council, which were signed by the bishops, the pretorian prefect Liberius and seven other distinguished laymen, were forwarded to Rome and approved by Boniface II on 25 January, 531. They consequently enjoy œcumenical [infallible] authority and are printed in Denzinger’s "Enchiridion Symbolorum" (10th ed., nos. 174-200).” (The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 11, "Councils of Orange", 1911)

Pope Clement VIII also taught that “all sinned” without mentioning any exceptions.

Pope Clement XIII, A Quo Die, 1758: “8. …Let us not think that our true, solid, and serious glory comes from the lips of men. We have all sinned, and we all need the glory of God.”

Did the infallible Council of Orange and Pope Clement mean that Christ and Mary had sinned? And did the infallible Council of Trent mean that Christ has sinned (or that Mary sinned until it made her an exception three paragraphs later)? Of course not. It is understood they did not mean to include them, because the exceptions were so well taught elsewhere.

Peter Dimond, Is Our Lady the Co-Redeemer?: “Those who have a problem with the fact that we have said that Mary is not Co-Redemptrix or Co-Redeemer don’t have a problem with us; they have a problem with the dogmatic Council of Trent, the teaching of the Holy Catholic Church, which erred according to them when it infallibly defined that Jesus alone is our Redeemer. Further, look at the context of this dogmatic definition of the Catholic Church. The context deals with devotion to Our Lady and the Saints; and yet not only does it not say that Our Lady is Co-Redemptrix, it specifically contradicts the idea by infallibly declaring that Christ alone is Our Redeemer.

Pope Pius IV, Council of Trent, Sess. 25, On Invocation, Veneration and Relics of Saints, and on Sacred Images, ex cathedra: “…the saints, who reign with Christ, offer up their prayers to God for me; and that it is good and useful to invoke them suppliantly and, in order to obtain favors from God through His Son JESUS CHRIST OUR LORD, WHO ALONE IS OUR REDEEMER and Savior….But if anyone should teach or maintain anything contrary to these decrees, let him be anathema.” (Denz. 984-987)

As we have seen already, the point is that just because a certain infallible text does not mention an exception does not mean there is not an exception. Other sources of revelation have to be looked at, either other places in the Bible or the oral traditions of the original apostles, or other infallible Councils and decrees. The Holy Bible has many such examples. I relate this to the dogma “Outside the Church there is no salvation,” because those who deny the dogma say that there are exceptions to the words of Popes Innocent III in the Fourth Lateran Council, Boniface VIII in the Bull Unam Sanctum, and Pope Eugene IV in the Council of Florence. But search as they may they will find no exceptions mentioned elsewhere, not in the same decrees or any other decrees by these popes or their predecessors.

Peter then said: “there is no other reason to apply the term Co-Redemptrix to her unless you are promoting the idea that she played an integral role in the actual specific formal act of redemption.” The Blessed Virgin obviously was a partner in the redemption—not an equal partner but a lesser partner. That is why she is called the Co-Redeemer and Jesus is called the Redeemer. Christ redeemed men from their sins but not without a partner from which He could take on human flesh. This partner, Mary, is correctly titled the Co-Redeemer because she played a vital role in the remission of men’s sins, while Jesus is the sole Redeemer whose death remitted men’s sins. Just because Mary’s title has the word “redeemer” in it does not mean she usurps Jesus’ title as the sole redeemer whose death remitted men’s sins.

Just as the Blessed Virgin Mary is the Mediatrix, she also is the Co-Redemptrix or Co-Redeemer. The principle is the same. Just as Mary’s title of Mediatrix does not deny Jesus Christ’s title as sole mediator before men and God the Father, Mary’s title of Co-Redeemer does not deny Jesus Christ’s title as the sole redeemer whose sacrifice remits sins and thus redeems men: “In whom we have redemption through his [Jesus’] blood, the remission of sins.” (Eph. 1:7)

How the Council of Trent is to be understood

The Council of Trent: “Jesus Christ our Lord, who alone is our redeemer and Savior…” (sess. xxv)

The Council of Trent uses the word “redeemer” to mean the one who redeems men from their sins and thus reunites them to God and offers them eternal life. However, the Bible also refers to other redeemers; but these redeemers did not effect the remission of sins. For instance, Moses was also called a redeemer: “This Moses… God sent to be prince and redeemer, by the hand of the angel who appeared to him in the burning bush.” (Acts 7:35)

Rheims New Testament, 1582, annotation on Acts 7: 35: “Christ is our Redeemer, and yet Moses is here called redeemer. So Christ is our Mediator and Advocate, and yet we may have Saints as our inferior mediators and advocates. (See Annot. 1 John 2:1)”

Further, in the continuation of Council of Trent, Session 25 (that Peter quotes to deny Mary as Co-Redeemer), it says concerning “the one mediator of God and men, Jesus Christ” that:

“Jesus Christ our Lord, who alone is our redeemer and Savior; and that they think impiously who deny that the saints who enjoy eternal happiness in heaven are to be invoked, or who assert that they do not pray for men, or that our invocation of them to pray for each of us individually is idolatry, or that it is opposed to the word of God and inconsistent with the honor of the ONE MEDIATOR OF GOD AND MEN, JESUS CHRIST…” (Council of Trent, Session 25)

So the Council of Trent just said infallibly that it’s not opposed to the word of God to invoke the saints in heaven and that this is notinconsistent with the honor of the ONE MEDIATOR OF GOD AND MEN, JESUS CHRIST…”

Hence Moses’ title as redeemer does not deny Christ’s title as the sole redeemer as referred to in the Council of Trent because Trent’s use of the word “redeemer” is in reference to the ultimate redemption, the salvation of souls. The same applies to Christ’s title as sole mediator before God. This title does not mean there cannot be other mediators, such as the Blessed Virgin Mary and the good angels and the saints, all who are mediators between men and Christ, as we have just seen. So, indeed, Moses was truly a redeemer, but an inferior redeemer to Christ. Moses’ title as redeemer was in reference to the temporary salvation of God’s chosen people from slavery and other hardships imposed on them by the Egyptians. Moses’ redemption also prepared God’s chosen people for the ultimate redemption when Christ died on the cross:

Catholic commentary on Acts 7: “Ver. 35. … Redeemer. In the Greek Lutroten; Protestant version, Deliverer; though the learned Polus, in his Synopsis Criticorum, on this place, says, ‘that no greater injury is done to God, by calling Moses a Redeemer, in this place, than by calling him a Mediator, in Galatians iii. 19. He is called a Redeemer…in as much as he led forth, and preserved the people of God safe by the blood of a lamb, and this exhibited a figure of the true redemption, through the blood of Christ.’”

The Council of Florence taught the same. It declared that Jesus Christ alone by His death redeemed the human race and “opened the entrance to the kingdom of heaven.” Thus, when the Councils use the word “redeemer”, it is in reference to the ultimate redemption, the salvation of souls and the opening of the kingdom of heaven.

Pope Eugene IV, Council of Florence, “Cantate Domino” 1441, ex cathedra: “The Holy Roman Church firmly believes, professes, and teaches that no one conceived of man and woman was ever freed of the domination of the Devil, except through the merit of the mediator between God and men, our Lord Jesus Christ; He who was conceived without sin, was born and died, through His death alone laid low the enemy of the human race by destroying our sins, and opened the entrance to the kingdom of heaven, which the first man by his own sin had lost…” (Denz. 711)

It’s interesting that the Catechism of the Council of Trent also teaches that Christ alone redeemed us and “reconciled us to the heavenly Father through His blood.” While the catechism is not infallible, it reiterates the truth that was solemnly defined in the aforementioned councils.

Catechism of the Council of Trent, Part III: The Decalogue – First Commandment – Thou Shalt not Have Strange Gods, etc. – Objections Answered: “True, there is but one Mediator, Christ the Lord, who alone has reconciled us to the heavenly Father through His blood, and who, having obtained eternal redemption, and having entered once into the holies, ceases not to intercede for us.”

All of the above quotes that we have looked at, the Dimonds use to “prove” that “Christ “alone” redeemed us and that Christ “alone” is the Redeemer”, which no one is denying, and they focus solely on the “alone” part completely ignoring what the quotes and councils means with their statements.

Peter Dimond: “The bottom-line is that there is no way of getting around the dogmatic definitions which declare that Jesus Christ alone is the Redeemer.” (Mary is not the Co-Redeemer (Co-Redemptrix))

Let’s see Council of Trent’s own answer to Peters protestant objection of Christ “alone” this, or Christ “alone” that when this exact same term is applied to the “ONE MEDIATOR OF GOD AND MEN, JESUS CHRIST”:

The Council of Trent: “Jesus Christ our Lord, who alone is our redeemer and Savior; and that they think impiously who deny that the saints who enjoy eternal happiness in heaven are to be invoked, or who assert that they do not pray for men, or that our invocation of them to pray for each of us individually is idolatry, or that it is opposed to the word of God and inconsistent with the honor of the ONE MEDIATOR OF GOD AND MEN, JESUS CHRIST…” (sess. xxv)

All who read this text should know that Mary is the “Mediatrix of all Graces” according to Catholic teaching, which means that She is a Mediator in the work of salvation of man. But according to the false logic of the teaching of MHFM, this would deny Trent.

Therefore the Council of Trent’s reference to Jesus as the only redeemer must be taken in correct context or one might deny the Bible verse that says Moses is also a redeemer, or deny that Mary can be Co-Mediator. Hence the Bible, councils and popes never meant to teach that there cannot be other types of redeemers or mediators, such as Moses, or that there cannot be a co-redeemer or co-mediator, such as the Blessed Virgin Mary.

As the First Vatican Council declared on January 6, 1870 concerning understanding the dogmas as the Church has understood and understands:

If anyone says that it is possible that at some time given the advancement of knowledge, a sense may be assigned to the dogmas propounded by the Church which is different FROM THAT WHICH THE CHURCH HAS UNDERSTOOD AND UNDERSTANDS: let him be anathema.” (Pope Pius IX, Vatican Council I, Session 3, On Faith and Reason, 4:3)

Jesus is the sole redeemer who redeemed men from their sins. However, the redemption did not happen without a woman who was worthy enough to conceive God in her womb so that the redemption could take place. This woman is the Immaculate Virgin Mary! Christ died for our sins, but without Mary there is no Christ to die for our sins. Christ’s death redeems men, but without Mary there is no Christ to redeem men. Therefore without Mary, there is no redemption. Hence Mary is truly and properly the Co-Redeemer! Christ redeemed men, but He would not redeem men without the help of Mary whose flesh He took and who offered her Son to God as Abraham offered Isaac. It is in this sense that Mary is truly the Co-Redeemer, which does not conflict with the Bible or infallible papal decrees or councils when taken in correct context and understood as the Church understands it. Indeed, popes, saints and other Catholic writers have taught that Mary is Co-Redeemer:

Life of St. Anthony of Padua (1195-1231): “The first word [St. Anthony] uttered was the holy name of Mary… His most powerful and moving sermons were preached in her honor. In his writings are to be found the doctrines of her Immaculate Conception and glorious Assumption; and he never tired of speaking of her as the Mediatrix of All Graces, nor of dwelling upon her part in the redemption.” (Saints to Know and Love, by The Slaves of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, St. Anthony of Padua)

St. Alphonsus Liguori, The Glories of Mary, Chapter IV, Section II — Mary, our Mediatress — The Necessity of the Intercession of Mary for our Salvation: “Saint Bernard says, ‘that as a man and a woman cooperated in our ruin, so it was proper that another man and another woman should cooperate in our redemption; and these two were Jesus and his Mother Mary.’ ‘There is no doubt,’ says the Saint, ‘that Jesus Christ alone was more than sufficient to redeem us; but it was more becoming that both sexes should cooperate in the reparation of an evil in causing which both had shared.’ Hence blessed Albert the Great calls Mary ‘the helper of redemption:’ and this Blessed Virgin herself revealed to Saint Bridget, that ‘as Adam and Eve sold the world for an apple, so did she with her Son redeem it as it were with one heart.’ This is confirmed by Saint Anselm, who says, ‘that although God could create the world out of nothing, yet, when it was lost by sin, He would not repair the evil without the cooperation of Mary.’

“Suarez says, ‘that Mary cooperated in our salvation in three ways; first, by having merited by a merit of congruity the Incarnation of the Word; secondly, by having continually prayed for us whilst she was living in this world; thirdly, by having willingly sacrificed the life of her Son to God.’ For this reason our Lord has justly decreed, that as Mary cooperated in the salvation of man with so much love, and at the same time gave such glory to God, so all men through her intercession are to obtain their salvation.

“Mary is called ‘the cooperator in our justification; for to her God has intrusted all graces intended for us;’ and therefore Saint Bernard affirms, ‘that all men, past, present, and to come, should look upon Mary as the means and negotiator of the salvation of all ages.’ … And shall we scruple to ask her to save us, when ‘the way of salvation is open to none otherwise than through Mary?’ as a certain author remarks. And before him Saint Germanus had said the same thing, speaking of Mary: ‘No one is saved but through thee.’ … And as we have access to the Eternal Father, says Saint Bernard, only through Jesus Christ, so have we access to Jesus Christ only through Mary: ‘By thee we have access to the Son, O blessed finder of grace, bearer of life, and mother of salvation, that we may receive Him by thee, Who through thee was given to us.’”

Pope Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus, 1854: “All our hope do we repose in the most Blessed Virgin—in the all fair and immaculate one who has crushed the poisonous head of the most cruel serpent and brought salvation to the world: in her who is the glory of the prophets and apostles, the honor of the martyrs, the crown and joy of all the saints; in her who is the safest refuge and the most trustworthy helper of all who are in danger; in her who, with her only-begotten Son, is the most powerful Mediatrix and Conciliatrix in the whole world; in her who is the most excellent glory, ornament, and impregnable stronghold of the holy Church.”

Pope Pius X, Ad Diem Illum Laetissimum, 1904: “6. Could not God have given us, in another way than through the Virgin, the Redeemer of the human race and the Founder of the Faith? Hence whenever the Scriptures speak prophetically of the grace which was to appear among us, the Redeemer of mankind is almost invariably presented to us as united with His mother. …Now the Blessed Virgin did not conceive the Eternal Son of God merely in order that He might be made man taking His human nature from her, but also in order that by means of the nature assumed from her He might be the Redeemer of men. …

“12. Moreover it was not only the prerogative of the Most Holy Mother to have furnished the material of His flesh to the Only Son of God, Who was to be born with human members, of which material should be prepared the Victim for the salvation of men; but hers was also the office of tending and nourishing that Victim, and at the appointed time presenting Him for the sacrifice. …When the supreme hour of the Son came, beside the Cross of Jesus there stood Mary His Mother, not merely occupied in contemplating the cruel spectacle, but rejoicing that her Only Son was offered for the salvation of mankind, and so entirely participating in His Passion, that if it had been possible she would have gladly borne all the torments that her Son bore. And from this community of will and suffering between Christ and Mary she merited to become most worthily the Reparatrix[1] [Co-Redeemer] of the lost world and Dispensatrix of all the gifts that Our Savior purchased for us by Death and by His Blood…

“14. We are…very far from attributing to the Mother of God a productive power of grace—a power which belongs to God alone. Yet, since Mary carries it over all in holiness and union with Jesus Christ, and has been associated by Jesus Christ in the work of redemption, she merits for us ‘de congruo,’ in the language of theologians, what Jesus Christ merits for us ‘de condigno,’ and she is the supreme Minister of the distribution of graces.”

[1] The Latin word “reparo” means to restore, renew, or purchase. Hence the pope refers to Mary as a partner with Jesus in renewing men to eternal life and restoring a fallen world by purchasing or redeeming men’s sin debt, which means Jesus is Redeemer and Mary is Co-Redeemer.

The Sources of Catholic Dogma, Denzinger: “In the decree of the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office (section on indulgences), Sunt quos amor, June 26, 1913 (AAS 5 (1913) 363), he [Pope Benedict XV] praises the custom of adding to the name of Jesus the name of ‘His Mother, our coredemptor, the blessed Mary’; cf. also the prayer enriched by the Holy Office with an indulgence, in which the Blessed Virgin Mary is called ‘coredemptress of the human race.’ (Jan. 22, 1914; AAS 6 [1914] 108).”

Pope Benedict XV, Inter solalicia, 1918: “The Blessed Virgin suffered with her suffering Son and nearly died with Him when He died; she abdicated her maternal rights over her Son for the salvation of men, and so far as it appertained to her she immolated her Son to placate the divine justice; so that she may rightly be said to have redeemed the human race with Christ.”

Pope Pius XI, Miserentissimus Redemptor, 1928: “And now lastly may the most benign Virgin Mother of God smile on this purpose and on these desires of ours; for since she brought forth for us Jesus our Redeemer, and nourished Him, and offered Him as a victim by the Cross, by her mystic union with Christ and His very special grace she likewise became and is piously called a reparatress [Co-Redemptrix].”

Pope Pius XI, Auspicatus profecto, 1933: “[Mary became the Mother of Jesus] in order that she might become a partner in the redemption of the human race.”

Pope Pius XI, Explorata res, 1923: “The Virgin participated with Jesus Christ in the very painful act of the redemption.”

In a book series on the Catholic faith called “The Library Of Catholic Knowledge”, in the book about the Blessed Virgin Mary, it explains Co-Redemptrix, and it goes onto say: “It belongs to the Church to fix the language of her theology, and to judge whether or not any confusion is likely to occur in certain cases; and in authorized documents the magisterium of the Church tends increasingly to favour the expression Co-redemptrix to express this doctrine. It has now received “the freedom of the city” so to speak, and it remains for us to explain what it involves.”

The book then goes onto explain in detail Co-Redemptrix. So when it comes down to it, the Church has most certainly allowed the idea and it has been around for hundreds and hundreds of years, and, as we have seen, at least 3 Popes have taught it, and the medieval Franciscans support it too and so did Saints, and the main thing is that the term is not heretical because what it MEANS is not heretical! The Dimonds in their pride (yet again) have lied and have given themselves far too much confidence on this. For them to condemn anyone who holds it (the correct meaning), is absolutely absurd.

  • In Reparation for Insults Offered to the Blessed Virgin Mary (Taken from the Raccolta)

O blessed Virgin, Mother of God, look down in mercy from Heaven, where thou art enthroned as Queen, upon me, a miserable sinner, thine unworthy servant. Although I know full well my own unworthiness, yet in order to atone for the offenses that are done to thee by impious and blasphemous tongues, from the depths of my heart I praise and extol thee as the purest, the fairest, the holiest creature of all God’s handiwork. I bless thy holy Name, I praise thine exalted privilege of being truly Mother of God, ever Virgin, conceived without stain of sin, Co-Redemptrix of the human race. I bless the Eternal Father who chose thee in an especial way for His daughter; I bless the Word Incarnate who took upon Him our nature in thy bosom and so made thee His Mother; I bless the Holy Spirit who took thee as His bride. All honor, praise and thanksgiving to the ever-blessed Trinity who predestined thee and loved thee so exceedingly from all eternity as to exalt thee above all creatures to the most sublime heights. O Virgin, holy and merciful, obtain for all who offend thee the grace of repentance, and graciously accept this poor act of homage from me thy servant, obtaining likewise for me from thy divine Son the pardon and remission of all my sins. Amen.

An indulgence of 500 days (Holy Office, Jan. 22, 1914; S. P. Ap., Dec. 4, 1934). The Raccolta, translated into English from the 1938 edition by The Rev. Joseph P. Christopher, Ph.D., and The Very Rev. Charles E. Spence, M.A. (Oxon.) By authorization of the Holy See.

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